Chemistry is the science dealing with the structure of substances and the changes that they undergo. The study of chemistry is mostly concerned with specific atoms and their interaction with each other in the environment. It involves an examination into the properties of substances and how atoms and their various forms of energy affect the surrounding environment. Chemistry is often noted as a connector for all the other sciences. The first chemical explanation was put forth in Greece around 200 B.C. Aristotle states that fire, air, earth and water are the basis upon which everything is formed. These early “chemists” did not use experiments to support their hypothesis; rather, they merely used the classical philosophical teachings to base upon their theories. Robert Boyle is credited as the father of chemistry. He produced a text called The Skeptical Chemist, in which he contrasted empirical discoveries to the discoveries within alchemy. In his book, he devised Boyles Law. This new law rejected the original four elements of chemistry and proposed that chemical reactions could instead be proven through experimentation. It was in 1897 that J.J. Thompson would first discover the electron, and at the same time Pierre and Marie Currie would discover radioactivity. These two new concepts would eventually lead to a mass increase in the number of scientific discoveries, and would usher the world of chemistry into the modern era. It would also--although unknown at the time--lead to a use of radioactive material that would forever change the world.
The discovery of Uranium by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1789 would lead to many advances both positive and negative in the world of chemistry. These advancements in technology would allow scientists to take a single atom and apply it towards many different uses. These scientists, equipped with high tech computers and advanced understandings of the atom, were able to put it to civilian use and also harness the knowledge for military benefit. In fact, the knowledge would eventually translate into the most significant and well-known use of the atom: chemical warfare.
The first record of chemical weapons occurred during the latter of the Stone Age. Tribes would remove the venom out of snakes or poisonous frogs and add them to the end of the weapon. These poisoned arrows and spears would be used to attack animals or other rival tribes. The earliest form of gas warfare recorded was in the 5th century during the Peloponnesian war. Spartan forces were able to use this gas to cripple their enemy. Enemies would lose all capabilities of resistance to the impending attacks from the Spartans. Tribes would often experiment with different substances until they found something that would work; however, they did not use organized systems in which they recorded specific measurements.
In the modern era, the French were the apply poisonous weapons. French forces would deploy tear gasses against enemy forces. This tear gas would...