History Of Fingerprints Essay

594 words - 3 pages

Fingerprints are more than likely the best known form of biometrics. In the 19th century, it was observed that contact between someone’s hands and a surface left barely visible marks called fingerprints. Fine powder was used to make the marks more visible. Modern fingerprint identification dates from 1880, when the British scientific journal, Nature, published letters by Henry Faulds and William James Herschel describing the uniqueness and permanence of fingerprints. In other words, they found out the looks of fingerprints and thought that this data was intriguing and interesting. Their observation was verified by Sir Francis Galton, who designed the first elementary system for classifying fingerprints based on grouping the patterns into arches, loops, and whorls. Galton system was improved upon by a London police commissioner, Sir Edward R. Henry. The Galton-Henry system of fingerprint classification was published in June 1900. This was officially introduced in at Scotland Yard in 1901. Their system is the most widely used method of fingerprinting to date.

There are three main types of fingerprints. They are loop patterns, whorl patterns, and arch patterns. In loop patterns, the ridges will flow in one side, recurve, touch or pass through an imaginary line drawn from the delta to the core, and exit the pattern on the same side from which it entered. This can result into two different types. They are ulnar loop and radical loop. Loop patterns only have one delta. They also count for at least 70% of all fingerprints. Whorl patterns consist of series of almost concentric circles. A Whorl pattern has two deltas. There are four different types of Whorl patterns. They are Plain whorl, Central Pocket Loop whorl, Double Loop whorl, and Accidental whorl. Whorl patterns account for at least 25% of...

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