History Of Humans Essay

959 words - 4 pages

Humans are a complex organism. The theory of evolution suggests that we all came from a single ancestor and have evolved over millions of years to create our species that lives to this day. But what is evolution? Who did we all evolve from? What makes us different than this ancestor of ours?
What is Evolution?
Evolution is a process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many generations. Scientist Charles Darwin believed that natural selection was one of the main reasons for evolution. He also believed that complex creatures come from simple ancestors that changed over a period of time. As random mutations occur within an organism's genetic code, the beneficial ...view middle of the document...

Therefor, making us very distant cousins. Most scientists believe our common ancestor existed 5-8 million years ago and two species broke off from that species into separate lineages. One is thought to be what led to chimps and gorillas and the other evolved into early humans, also know as, hominids. Even though many scientists agree with this theory, there is very little fossil evidence from the transition of apes to humans. The beginning of how apes came to be humans is unclear but there is a surplus of evidence on how early humans evolved to who we are today.
Human’s History
After we branched off into a separate lineage, one of the earliest species to form was Sahelanthropus tchadensis. Orrorin tugenensis came shortly after and had two femur bones that showed it walked upright despite its similarities to apes. This is when bipedalism started to take off. About 2 million years after that other species like Ardipithecus ramidus evolved to early human species that were bipedal, meaning that they could walk on two feet. They all belonged to the Ardipithecus group. Their bodies then evolved into species belonging to the Australopithecus group which included Australopithecus Afarensis-one of the best-known early human species. This species had mainly a plant-based diet and had both ape and human characteristics. They could walk on two feet but still climb trees making their bodies suitable for a variety of environments which is why they lived longer than other early human species. These species lead to the Paranthropus group who had large teeth and powerful jaws that let them eat a variety of foods. Finally, came the Homo group which included well known species like Homo erectus. Homo erectus is considered a highly variable species, spread over two continents , and possibly the longest lived early human species. They lived possibly 9 times...

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