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History Of Stem Cells Essay

1388 words - 6 pages

History of Stem Cells

Abstract
This paper will be discussing the history of stem cells. There are many different ways to collect stem cells. Stem cells can be used for either right or wrong reasons. People can either use them to cure or to cause harm. Most people use stem cells to cure fatal illnesses. The one researcher that put stem cells out in the science world so people could understand it better was Leroy Stevens. His first encounter with stem cells was with a mouse that had a teratoma.
Most people don’t understand the need for stem cells. There are many reasons why we research stem cells. Stem cells can be collected form a wide variety of places. The studies of stem cells have been around for many years. There were many people researching stem cells during the early 1900s, but Leroy Stevens had the greatest impact on the future study of stem cells.
The people of ancient civilization were curious about the study of stem cells. Hindus from the thirteen and fourteen centuries BC knew that the result of the fetus would come from mixing two seeds of the parents (Kelly 16). They weren't the only people who wondered about the studies of stem cells. Greek philosopher named Aristotle was also interested in the study of stem cells so he discovered two very important theories. The two theories were Perfomation and Epigenesis (Kelly 16). According to the theory of Peromation, the fetus grows over time (Kelly 16). In contrast, Epigenesis means tat the fetus begins as a generic mass and then different parts are added to the fetus (Kelly 16).
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Researching on mice was began in a Laboratory in Bar Harbor in Maine. In the year of 1953, researcher Leroy Stevens began on an experiment with cancerous mice. This laboratory was awarded a grant from a tobacco company. The grant was awarded to the laboratory so that researchers could prove that the reason for cancer was the cigarette paper, not the tobacco (Kelly 23). After, exposure to a large amount of the ingredients to make cigarettes, Stevens noticed that each mouse was developing a cancerous tumor, which is called a teratoma (Kelly 23).
After the growth of a teratoma, the director of the laboratory, Dr. Clarence Cook Little, encouraged Stevens to continue in this line of research, including exploratory dissections (Kelly 23). Then he found that there were some cells that were normally found in the cardiac muscle and some other cells that did not belong there (Kelly 23). After, that discovery they named it strain "mouse 129". Stevens found that many other mice were developing teratomas (Kelly 23). This all indicated that all these mice generated a gene that would develop teratomas. Also, most of these cells had undifferentiated and differentiated cells (Kelly 23).
Ever since the research of Leroy Stevens, we have been using different methods to collect stem cells. In the beginning, after Stevens’ research, there were two groups that used different methods for gathering stem cells. One team...

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