History Of The Atom Nickel Essay

1410 words - 6 pages

Name: nickel Symbol: Ni Atomic number: 28 Atomic weight: 58.6934 (2)Minerals containing nickel were of value for colouring glass green. The mineral used for colouring glass was called kupfernickel (false copper). Nickel was discovered by Baron Axel Frederik Cronstedt in 1751 in a mineral called niccolite. Apparently, he had expected to extract copper from this mineral but got none at all, obtaining instead a white metal that he called nickel after the mineral from which it was extracted.Discovered by:Axel Fredrik CronstedtDiscovered at:SwedenDiscovered when:1751 Origin of name:From the German word "kupfernickel" meaning Devil's copper or St Nicholas's (OLd Nick's) copperFluorides NiF2: nickel (II) fluorideChlorides NiCl2.6H2O: nickel (II) chloride 6-water NiCl2: nickel (II) chlorideBromides NiBr2: nickel (II) bromideIodides NiI2: nickel (II) iodideOxides NiO: nickel (II) oxide Ni2O3: nickel (III) oxideSulfides NiS: nickel (II) sulphide NiS2: nickel disulphide Ni3S2: nickel sulphideSelenides NiSe: nickel (II) selenide Ground state electron configuration: [Ar].3d8.4s2 Shell structure: Term symbol: 3F4Melting point [/K]: 1728 [or 1455 °C (2651 °F)]Boiling point [/K]: 3186 [or 2913 °C (5275 °F)] (liquid range: 1458 K)Density of solid [/kg m-3]: 8908Year Scientist(s) DiscoveryGreekera Democritus"by convention bitter, by convention sweet, but in reality atoms and void"1704 Isaac NewtonProposed a mechanical universe with small solid masses in motion.1803 John DaltonProposed an "atomic theory" with spherical solid atoms based upon measurable properties of mass.1832 Michael FaradayStudied the effect of electricity on solutions, coined term "electrolysis" as a splitting of molecules with electricity, developed laws of electrolysis. Faraday himself was not a proponent of atomism.1859 J. Plucker Built one of the first gas discharge tubes ("cathode ray tube").1869 Dmitri MendeleevArranged elements into 7 groups with similar properties. He discovered that the properties of elements "were periodic functions of the their atomic weights". This became known as the Periodic Law.1873 James Clerk MaxwellProposed electric and magnetic fields filled the void.1874 G.J. StoneyProposed that electricity was made of discrete negative particles he called "electrons". (Link to info on electrons)1879 Sir William CrookesDiscovered cathode rays had the following properties: travel in straight lines from the cathode; cause glass to fluoresce; impart a negative charge to objects they strike; are deflected by electric fields and magnets to suggest a negative charge; cause pinwheels in their path to spin indicating they have mass.1886 E. Goldstein Used a CRT to study "canal rays" which had electrical and magnetic...

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