History Of The Internet Essay

1004 words - 4 pages

The internet was the created by a combined effort of leading computer engineers and experts. Among this group of people were Leonard Kleinrock, J.C.R. Licklider, Larry Roberts, and many others. In 1962, J.C.R. Licklider proposed the idea of a network that could connect all the computers around the globe with a single network. It would allow any data or information from a site to be accessed from anywhere in a short time. After leaving MIT, he joined the Advanced Research Projects Agency, which was run by the U.S. Department of Defense, and he became the first director of the Information Processing Techniques Office. Around this same time, the RAND published the On Distributed Communications Networks report. Paul Baran hypothesized the idea of using an analog signal to transmit messages that were divided into bits. These bits would travel across a network of nodes. The bits would attach to each other again at a node closest to the destination. The purpose of it was to have a stable communications network that would survive nuclear warfare.Donald Davies, another communications expert, proposed a similar idea to Baran's. It was based on the same concepts except these bits were called packets and it would use a different method of transmitting information. The name stuck and this idea was called the packet switching theory. Leonard Kleinrock wrote the first thesis on the packet switching theory at MIT in 1961. He convinced Lawrence Roberts that circuit switching would be inadequate in linking together two computers. In 1965, Thomas Merrill and Roberts created the first widespread network by linking together two computers, one in Massachusetts and the other in California. This project used a dial-up telephone line and it proved that packing switching would be more suitable to the job. Packet switching was superior because when the chunks of information reached a congested lane, it would move to a less used one thus making the entire process faster.Roberts became the director of ARPA Information Processing Techniques Office in 1966. He proposed the idea of a network known as ARPANET. It would require the usage of mainframes and interface message processors. The mainframes were build by a variety of manufacturers but the IMP's were able to be standardized which would significantly lower costs. In 1969, the responsibility of constructing IMP's was given to the Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc firm. This is how IMP's worked. "First, they would break data from a host mainframe into packets of about 1,000 bits each, attaching source and destination information to each packet, along with digits used to check for transmission errors. The IMPs would then choose optimal routes for the individual packets and reassemble the message at the other end. All the traffic would flow on leased telephone lines that could handle 50,000 bits per second" (http://greatachievements.org/?id=3741).By 1969, ARPANET was officially up and running with 4 main sites connect to it. It...

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