Hiv/Aids Control Concept Of Treatment For Prevention

1525 words - 7 pages

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been noticed since 1981. Globally, an estimated 35.3 (32.2–38.8) million people were living with HIV in 2012. An increase from previous years as more people are receiving the life-saving antiretroviral therapy, there were 2.3 (1.9–2.7) million new HIV infections globally, showing a 33% decline in the number of new infections from 3.4 (3.1–3.7) million in 2001. At the same time the number of AIDS deaths is also declining with 1.6 (1.4–1.9) million AIDS deaths in 2012, down from 2.3 (2.1–2.6) million in 2005(UNAIDS., 2013). From these data, it is clear that HIV still remain as big burden until now although we fight it for many years. Since many years ago, we use various methods such as prevention of transmission, behavior change communication, highly active antiretroviral therapy, prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) to control it. Almost all countries have national strategic plan to control it using a lot of funding but it still exists. After 30 years of fighting against HIV, all becomes realize that we need new strategies to reach one of our latest goals “Zero new Infection”. To achieve this goal, we have 2 options, development of vaccine and treating all HIV patients with the concept of treatment for prevention. Vaccine development is the best but we still not get perfect vaccine although we are trying for many years. So people decide to develop second option which is more realistic at this moment because of available tool, antiretroviral therapy (ART). And we can see from UNAIDS report that new infection and death reduce gradually since development of ART in 2002. It did happen even without full coverage of ART to all HIV positive people. That’s why people think that there will be no new infection through 100% coverage of ART to people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and this how control concept of treatment for prevention appear.

Treatment for prevention
PMTCT is the first example of treatment for prevention of HIV and one study called HIV prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 study proved that ART reduce the sexual transmission of HIV-1 between men or man and woman (Scott M. Hammer, 2011). This article showed that ART treatment can prevent 2 transmission modes (sexual and vertical). Among the main 3 transmissions of HIV, we can prevent 2 and the third one which is blood transfusion can be prevented through screening and other methods. In addition, ART also can use as post exposure prophylaxis in health staffs’ accidental injuries and rape victims. The Study done in San Francisco about “Decreases in Community Viral Load (CVL) Are Accompanied by Reductions in New HIV Infections in San Francisco” suggested that wide-scale ART could reduce HIV transmission at the population level. Because CVL is temporally upstream of new HIV infections, jurisdictions should consider adding CVL to routine HIV surveillance to track the epidemic, allocate...

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