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Hiv And Stigma Essay

1203 words - 5 pages

Goffman (1963) defined stigma as any condition, attribute, trait, or behavior that is deeply discrediting and reduces the bearer from a whole and usual person to a tainted and discounted one. . Stigma consist of an attributes that marks people as different leading to devaluation. Stigma is socially constructed (Major & O’Brien, 2005) thus is dependent both on relationship and context. In fact, Goffman (1963) emphasized using the “language of relationships” (p. 3) when considering stigma. A subsequent framework proposed by Corrigan, Markowitz, and Watson (2004) expands the social mechanisms of stigma by describing the structural determinants of stigma that arise from economic, political, ...view middle of the document...

g., stigma) associated with HIV across different social contexts may reduce the likelihood that disclosure will be beneficial (Mishra et al., 2009). HIV disclosure may simply be riskier in some social contexts, where discloser attributes (e.g., gender and sexual orientation), confidant attributes (e.g., HIV knowledge), and societal policies (e.g., disclosure laws) can each serve to increase HIV stigma and, thereby, affect disclosure outcomes (Galletly & Pinkerton, 2006; Valle & Levy, 2009). Reduction of stigma may be an important way of encouraging mutual disclosure of HIV test results among sex partners (Seid, Wasie, & Admassu, 2012). While heuristic, the field lacks detail studies exploring specific type of perceived stigma and its effect on HIV disclosure to casual sex partners.
In the 2000s, studies showed that perceived stigma was not significantly correlated with HIV disclosure to sex partners. Wong and colleagues adapted a stigma scale (Genberg et al., 2008), which was developed among general community residents and used it in a study of HIV-positive person. The researchers formed three subscales measuring discrimination (7 questions, α = 0.80); shame, blame, and social isolation (9 questions, α = 0.77); and equity (5 questions, α = 0.58) (Wong et al., 2009). It may therefore limit its’ sensitivity in evaluating nuance of different types of stigma . Another study went a step further and suggested that it may be the nature of relationship (e.g., trust, close, supportive) that was significantly associated with HIV disclosure to intimate partners (Derlega et al., 2002; Mimiage et al., 2009). Thus, the character of the relationship may have a more powerful influence than just the category of relationship.
In the 2010s, studies focused on perceived stigma and found significant association between the effects of perceived stigma on HIV disclosure to sex partners. Anglewicz and Chintsanya (2011) developed a five-item perceived stigma scale and found that perceived stigma was significantly associated with HIV disclosure to sex partners among women, but not men in Malawi. It was also found that lower perceived stigma was significantly correlated with positive disclosure beliefs among HIV positive Zimbabwean women (rho=0.44, p<0.0001) (Patel et al., 2012). In a South African sample, Vu and colleagues (2012) found that this association was only significant among steady relationships but not casual relationships. But a new study in the United States found that a greater level of perceived stigma was associated with less possibility of HIV disclosure to sex partners, regardless of subgroups and relationship characteristics (Przybyla et al., 2013). In this study, Przybyla and colleagues used a seven-item disclosure concerns subscale, which was adapted from a forty-item HIV stigma scale (Berger et al., 2001).
3) Moderator, facilitator or mitigator in the effects of perceived stigma on HIV disclosure to casual partner: meaning and process

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