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Hospitality Class Notes St Martha's

2986 words - 12 pages


2.1. Causes of Contamination
- Hazards or risks from food moving through the FPC (Food Production Cycle)
- Contamination occurs when food or water is unfit for human consumption from a contaminant
(a) Common types of contaminants/hazards may be Microbiological, chemical or physical
Microbiological examples are salmonella, listeria and clostridium botulinum (found in meats, dairy, poultry, fruit yeasts and mould on bread)
Chemical contaminant examples are detergents, sanitizers not being rinsed off fruits and vegies, potatoes exposed to sunlight, food additives and preservatives
These contaminants are found in: contaminated water, food prepared on surfaces with chemical residues, seafood, fruits and vegetables sprayed with chemicals, pesticide, insecticides etc
Physical examples are hair, glass, plastic, finger nails and polish, insects and rodent droppings. These are found in food prepared with poor hygiene standards
(b) Common food allergens are to fish, eggs, nut, crustaceans, milk, peanuts, soybeans and sesame seeds
The FSC (Food Standards Code) requires manufacturers to print these ingredients/allergens on their labels and packaging so consumers can make informed choices.
** In cooking, heating the food will not destroy the allergens
(c) Conditions conducive to food spoilage and contamination:
· Food spoilage is seen in change of colour, taste, smell and overall appearance – drying, mould, pest infestation, crystallisation, enzymatic browning
· Food spoilage is not always harmful (read mould) but it can be foul tasting!
· Heating and cooling can dry out/spoil the food
· Poor food handling practices
· Use-by-date exceeded
· Packaging may be broken/rushed

All hazards must be identified, reported and controlled to prevent food contamination
A food safety program assures the consumer that all steps are taken to prevent food from becoming contaminated. Eg HACCP Food safety program
The FPC (Food Production Cycle) can identify these hazards at every stage, and help prevent contamination
· Purchase and Delivery – buy from a reputable supplier. O not buy inferior product. Make sure packaging is intact. No expired foods. Food s delivered I the right temps. God personal hygiene from the driver/deliverer)
· Storage – Perishable food that is susceptible to bacterial growth and spoilage must be stored correctly and immediately. Cooked food stored above raw food. Stock rotation FIFO/LILO allows older food to be used up first
· Preparation – The danger zone is 5-60*C Don’t hold food for long in this temperature. Food handlers must have good hygiene. Cross contamination occurs as a result of poor environmental and food hygiene procedures. Bacteria may be transferred from contaminated food, utensils or linen (tea towels, bed linen) to uncontaminated food. Irregular cleaning practices can also lead to contamination, as well as not...

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