This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Households' Perceptions On Energy Consumption And Sustainable Life Styles In Zambia

2157 words - 9 pages

Energy consumption in Zambia
Although Zambia is well endowed with indigenous energy resources, the availability of modern energy services to the country’s current population of about 13.1million inhabitants remains an important priority ([11]; [12]). Zambia’s energy sources include electricity, petroleum, coal, biomass, and renewable energy [12]. Among the present sources of energy, wood fuel in the form of charcoal and firewood contributes 79%, electricity 10%, petroleum products 9% and coal 2% of the total consumed energy [12]. It is only petroleum which is wholly imported in the country, while the country is basically self-sufficient in all the other energy resources, as it has substantial unexploited reserves of these forms of energy. Zambia has solar radiation averages of 5.5 kWh/m²/day with up to 3,000 sunshine hours annually; providing significant potential for solar thermal and photovoltaic exploitation [14].

Hydro power is the most important source of electricity in Zambia. However, there has not been any major addition to the country’s generation capacity in the last 20-30 years despite the huge potential in hydro resources. It is estimated that Zambia possesses 40% of the water resources in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. The country has about 6,000 MW unexploited hydro power potential, while only about 1,985 MW has been developed [13]. Decades of underinvestment and maintenance backlogs due to poor governance and administration of the main electricity supplier, Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO), have led to an energy deficit in the country with intermittent power outages and an energy-poor rural community, as most electricity is provided to urban areas at the expense of the rural communities.

Access to electricity in Zambia is one of the major problems experienced by both urban and rural residents. In 2010, for example, a survey conducted by the Central Statistics Office (CSO) of Zambia revealed that only 22% of households in Zambia were connected to electricity. Analysis by rural and urban set up showed that only 5% of households in rural areas had connection to electricity compared to 53% of their urban counterparts [11]. With regards to usage, energy in Zambia is mainly used for lighting and cooking purposes, with kerosene/paraffin remaining the main source of lighting energy for most households, although this has reduced from 41% in 2006 to 27% in 2010. Other lighting sources include candles, electricity, diesel, open fire, torches and solar panels. While the use of diesel and open fire for lighting has reduced, other sources have increased. The figure below shows the percentage distribution of households by main type of lighting energy in 2006 and 2010.

Figure 1: Percentage distribution of households by main type of lighting energy, 2010 and 2006, Zambia (Source: CSO, 2010)

When we consider cooking, it is reported that 54% of households in Zambia use firewood as the main source of...

Find Another Essay On Households' Perceptions on Energy Consumption and Sustainable Life Styles in Zambia

Towards a sustainable energy supply: Shifting paradigms in energy supply

1426 words - 6 pages branched nature of every sociotechnical change. In conclusion, if something has become clear over the years is that the sustainable development needs to be hinged on social, environmental and economic demands, and not just on a monochromatic view of the world. As it happens in other aspects of life, these three pillars are not necessarily exclusive and only from the right combination of the three the right combination of energy sources will be

An Analysis of the Use of Nanotechnology in Electrical Energy Production and Storage and as a Means of Reducing Energy Consumption

1944 words - 8 pages chemistry. H.Vedam and W.Kong (2010) stated that “nanotechnology offers infinitive possibilities to develop innovative ways to efficiency capture, storage, and transfer energy and hence address both the short-term and long-term energy challenges”. The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of nanotechnology in alternative energy production, storage and as a means of reducing energy consumption. Roger A.Hinriches and Merlin Kleinbach (2006) declared

Food Consumption and Human Life Span

1444 words - 6 pages There is a clear link between the food consumption and human life span, with food manufacturers in the middle of that relationship. Food manufacturing is of great significance in a society because they produce majority of the food that individuals eat. Excess amount of consummation require food manufacturers to produce great amount of product in a short period of time which also makes food manufacturing quite lucrative. Considering the lack of

The Factors in Parenting Styles and their Influences on Children

2292 words - 10 pages The aim of this research is to investigate the factors in parenting styles and their influences on students of HKU SPACE Community College. 50 copies, mainly separated into 2 parts with regard to the factors and influences of parenting styles respectively, are issued. The research resources include questionnaire, newspaper articles, online books and journals.The first part of the research demonstrates family size play a crucial role in parenting

Advertising and Consumption in Gender

544 words - 2 pages smartphone. The other type is less popular and presents men devoted to their families who can save enough time for them. Men are very rarely presented during housecleaning. And if they are, it is rather a satirical image or they appear as the experts and they advise women, for instance, how to do laundry properly. ! Works Cited: Maasik, Sonia. Signs of Life in the USA: Readings on Popular Culture for Writers. 7th ed. N.p.: Bedford, 2012. Print.

Gender in Advertising and Consumption

544 words - 2 pages smartphone. The other type is less popular and presents men devoted to their families who can save enough time for them. Men are very rarely presented during housecleaning. And if they are, it is rather a satirical image or they appear as the experts and they advise women, for instance, how to do laundry properly. ! Works Cited: Maasik, Sonia. Signs of Life in the USA: Readings on Popular Culture for Writers. 7th ed. N.p.: Bedford, 2012. Print.

How Should Zambia Look Like in 2024 from a Tourism and Recreational Perspective

2186 words - 9 pages The purpose of this report is to give an answer on an important question “How should the destination Zambia look like in 2024, from a tourism and recreational perspective?." As a policy employee for the Ministry of Tourism & Arts in Zambia, the vision of Zambia for 10 years will be shown. Tourism policy needs improvements, and in order to meet with stakeholders, vision and explanation needs to be done. All information is reliable in the report

Lingual Evasion: Euphemisms and Their Effect on Perceptions in View of Neil Postman’s “Invisible Technologies”

603 words - 3 pages In his essay “Invisible Technologies,”, Neil Postman argues and exemplifies how language acts as an ideology in shaping the way people perceive and understand the world around them. One important form of linguistic manipulation which has an influence on human perceptions is euphemisms. Postman argues that “[language] instructs us not only in the names of things but, more important, in what things can be named” (Postman , 187), and this

Perceptions on Malaria and its Prevention among Rubber Plantation Workers in Myeik Township, Thanintharyi Region, Myanmar

1445 words - 6 pages expose people to forest-type malaria (Smithuis et al., 2013). Moreover, rubber plantation workers appear to be at a particularly high risk, as they work at night in a forest-like environment. It thus appears to be of importance to the malaria control program in Myanmar to find out more about the risk behaviour in this population and about their perceptions towards potential protective interventions. The research will be focused on studying the

Farming and Natural Resource Dynamics under Public-Private Partnership in Eastern Zambia

1480 words - 6 pages 4. Results 4.1. Contribution of PPP to Sustainable NRM in Game Management Areas The PPP’s private sector comprises the director, regional extension coordinator, senior extension officers, extension officers (chiefdom level) and chiefdom area managers. They are responsible for the business aspect of the PPP model in Lupande GMA. On the public side are registered households organised in various producer groups around various product lines that

The Life and Styles of Pablo Picasso

3391 words - 14 pages layering of paint on the main objects in comparison to the light layers of paint on the background. All of these things, in combination with the colors used, come together to create the eerie feeling of sadness and doom one gets when looking at this painting. As is typical in most still life, Picasso's work is intended to have a deeper meaning than simply being a study of various forms (Harwood). The most obvious story Picasso might have been

Similar Essays

Households' Perceptions On Energy Consumption And Sustainable Life Styles In Zambia

1711 words - 7 pages scholarly research, if any, has been conducted on the impact of lifestyles and behavioural patterns on energy consumption [2]. This study uses a mixed research approach (i.e. a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies) to investigate the impact of the lifestyle perceptions of households on energy consumption in the city of Kitwe, the second largest city in Zambia. Overview of Related studies A number of studies on the developed

Students' Perceptions On Parenting Styles Essay

1897 words - 8 pages factors that lead to this changes of parenting attitude such as the increase in rate of globalization and modernization that slowly open the mind of the fathers to be more supportive towards their children. The aim of this study is to examine whether students’ perceptions on parenting styles differ as a function of the gender of the parent. Other than that, to investigate students’ perceptions of helpfulness and level of caring demonstrated by

Sustainable Energy Systems And Their Benefits

2367 words - 9 pages , Alemayehu. "Sustainable energy system – A case study from Chile." Renewable Energy: An International Journal. 34.5 (2009): 1241-1244. Print. Uddin, Sk Noim. "Towards a sustainable energy future—exploring current barriers and potential solutions in Thailand ." Environment, Development and Sustainability. 12.1 (2008): 63-87. Print. "Turkey. Report of the in-depth review of the first national communication of Turkey." United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change . UNFCCC, 03 Dec 2009. Web. 5 Mar 2010. .

Research Paper On Bacterial Colonies In Households. Includes Technical Information On Different Bacterial Growth Factors And Examples

907 words - 4 pages body parts maybe affected by this vast amount of bacteria. Why, in like Day 4 in my scientific journal the bacteria were growing at vast amounts. Nauseating bumps and fuzzy balls grew from eating on my nutrient agar. Households are the nutrient agar substitute because they provide excellent temperatures and light.Although I can not allow it, there are certain number of errors that could be arousing or have already happened in my experiment could be