HOW AFFIRMATIVE ACTION HELPS
In the past and still to this day, affirmative action has been an issue for public debate. It is a policy that has been misunderstood and misrepresented, by the people who are against it and also by the people that are for it. They think that it is only for the African Americans, but in reality it helps woman and other minority groups. It’s not just a black and white thing; it is an equal opportunity thing, it is for all people who run into obstacles trying to get ahead in this world. Even though many people think that affirmative action is reverse discrimination, it’s not its here to help the minorities have the same edge as everyone else has. It keeps the playing field leveled; it not only covers one minority group but all of them. So that it is equal across the board as far as school and employment goes.
It all began in 1941, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Executive Order 8802 it stated that the government program could not in engage in discrimination based on race, color or national origin. This was only one of many that were signed because of this. But in 1961, President John F Kennedy signed Executive Order 10925 which started the Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity, this order would make sure that federal funds were used to start affirmative action, meaning that hiring and employment was not based on race, color, religion and sex. Then in 1965, when President Lyndon Johnson did his speech at Howard University he signed Executive Order 11246, stating that they make some guidelines and write out procedures for federal contractors. In 1967 they added gender discrimination and in 1969 President Richard Nixon put the Philadelphia Order in place stating that fair hiring practices be used.
When it first began it started out as trying to fix the wrong of discrimination that had been done to the minorities. Discrimination was found everywhere from real estate agent to employment offices, it was there in housing and pay rates. As time went on the whites had started to look at it as reverse discrimination, they felt that they same opportunities that the minorities had they was not awarded. The courts soon knocked down the programs that used quotas.
Once that happen the courts start to view it a whole different way. So once someone what to court and screamed discrimination it was denied. The courts relied on statistical reports to prove that it is discrimination, which soon became the basis for determining discrimination. By doing it that way other minorities other than African Americans filed lawsuits because of the statistical decisions, as time continues people still fought over affirmative action. As the years went on there were two important cases that the U.S. Supreme Court had to oversee in 2003, Gratz vs. Bollinger and Grutter vs. Bollinger. Grutter vs. Bollinger was the case of University of Michigan Law School, it the school should consider race and ethnicity in their admissions....