How Companies Manage Their Foreign Exchange Risk

4063 words - 16 pages

TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATIONINTRODUCTIONToyota Motor Corporation is the world's third largest automaker. It was established in Japan on 28 August 1937. Apart from its 12 plants in Japan, Toyota has 54 manufacturing companies in 27 countries, employs 246700 people and markets vehicles in more than 160 countries. Its capital as at March 2002 was 397 billion yen.Toyota is exposed to the fluctuation in foreign currency exchange as it operates mainly in America, Continental Europe and Britain. It is therefore affected by the fluctuation in the value of the US dollar, the Euro and to a lesser extent the British pound. Toyota's consolidated financial statements, which are presented in the Japanese yen, are affected by the foreign exchange fluctuation, as all the amounts in the various countries' currencies have to be translated into yen. Toyota's primary markets based on unit sales for vehicles for financial year ended March 31 2002 were Japan (40%), North America (32%) and Europe (13%). Toyota is listed on the London, New York and Tokyo stock exchanges.In the normal course of doing business, Toyota employs derivatives financial instruments, including forward contracts and foreign currency options to manage its exposure to fluctuation in foreign currency exchange rates. Toyota does not use derivatives for speculation and trading. (http://www.toyota.co.jp/en/ir.html accessed on 14th November 2002) The profitability of Toyota's operations is affected by many factors including the changes in the value of the Japanese yen against other currencies which Toyota does business. The financial year for Toyota is from 1 April to 31 March.IMPACT OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE RISK ON OPERATIONThe value of the Japanese yen has fallen generally for the past three years against the dollar and the Euro though there had been periods of fluctuations. (http://pacific.commerce.ubc.ca/xr/data.html accessed on 14th November 2002). Changes in foreign exchange rate affect Toyota's revenue, gross margins, operating costs, operating income, net income and retained earnings. Toyota's cost and liabilities are affected by transaction exposure which relates primarily to sales proceed from Toyota's non domestic sales produced in Japan. It is also affected to a lesser extent sales proceed from Toyota's continental Europe sales produced in UK.Toyota's use of forward exchange rate contracts and currency options is to hedge foreign exchange risk associated with trade receivables denominated primarily in U.S. dollars. Toyota also engages in foreign currency settlements with domestic counter parties. The company enters into forward contracts and purchases currency options (principally euro and dollar) to hedge certain portions of forecasted cash flows denominated in foreign currencies. Additionally, the Company enters into forward exchange contracts to offset the earnings impact relating to exchange rate fluctuations on certain monetary assets and liabilities. The Company enters into forward exchange...

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