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How Can A Disease Progress To Become Systemic?

1055 words - 5 pages

A systemic disease is a disease that affects multiple organs, organ system, tissues or the body as a whole. In some cases, local diseases can be sever and metastasize to other organs or tissues, or organ system and become systemic disease such as chronic pancreatitis, rheumatic fever, and cirrhosis. Chronic pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas, which doesn’t heal and cause complications such as pseudocyst, infection, breathing problems, diabetes, kidney failure, and malnutrition. Rheumatic fever is also inflammation disease but result from a complication of untreated strep throat which can metastasize and affect the heart’s valves, the heart’s muscle, causes atrial fibrillation, ...view middle of the document...

The two has to be formed in cirrhotic liver, whereas the regenerative feature is a later development of cirrhosis. (American Liver foundation, 2011)
However, the pathological feature of the liver differs as a result of its cause that leads to cirrhosis. It can either be the deposition of connective tissue or fibrosis between nodules or the existence of nodules that can reproduce or proliferate. Furthermore, those causes give different microscopic appearance to the cirrhotic liver. For instance, infiltration of the liver parenchyma with lymphocytes is the appearance of cirrhotic liver caused by chronic hepatitis B. When hepatic veins are surrounded by erythrocytes and fibrosis, it is cardiac cirrhosis. The presence of fibrosis, granulomas, and bile around the bile duct is seen in case of primary biliary cirrhosis. (Figure2) The penetration of neutrophils can be observed in case of alcoholic cirrhosis. When all this happen cirrhosis at the beginning is asymptomatic, as it get worse the symptom include: loss of weight and lack of energy, yellow skin or white eyes, edema, disorientation and blood in the stool. (Chopra, S.,2014)

Portal hypertension is the disease mechanism that plays the role to many of the complications. The resistance of cirrhotic liver to the blood flow through the liver that comes from intestines and spleen backs up the blood and creates high blood pressure in the liver and in the portal vein. Portal hypertension pushes the blood back to the veins and creates overload and strain such as esophageal varices or gastric varices and finally causes them to burst leading to life threatening bleeding. Besides the bleeding complication, the liver is unable to function normally as it did when it was healthy. One function of liver is to detoxification of substances that are either made by the body or taken into the blood such as medicines, ammonia, urine, nitrogen, and bilirubin. If cirrhosis hampered this normal function, poisons can build up in the bloodstream and spread to different organ and tissues causing severe problems such as hepatorenal syndrome (progressive kidney failure in a person with cirrhosis of the liver); hepatic encephalopathy (a worsening of brain function that occurs when the liver is no longer able to remove toxic substances in the blood); lung and heart complications. Ascites is...

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