The fifth generation of CRM combined the basic principles of the third and fourth generations, and it introduced the concept of error management and threat recognition. This was important because prior CRM programs focused more on establishing and building team relationships to enable safe and more efficient flight operations, and less on error management and threat recognition. The fifth generation of CRM training combines the principles of team building with error management and threat recognition. It accomplishes this through utilizing a holistic approach to training crews by teaching them how errors can occur during operations, and how to identify the precursors to the potential errors in flight operations. The fifth generation of CRM training integrates all facets of operations that support flight operations, (i.e. maintenance operations, refuel operations, and baggage handling/ramp operations) and addresses the synergistic relationship between the flight crews and ground crews.
The most current generation of CRM is the sixth generation also known as Threat Error Management (TEM). The sixth generation directly builds off the lessons learned from the fifth generation and introduces the principles of TEM. TEM is the process of identifying a potential chain of errors before they occur and utilizing risk mitigation factors to ensure that errors are avoided. It places the flight crew back into the center of the CRM focus, and takes a more direct approach in training flight crews in properly identifying how external factors can pose threats to flight operations, which in turn can lead to errors. Just like the fifth generation, the sixth generation also addresses the multifaceted operations environment. However, the sixth generation goes into further detail by addressing how external and internal factors such as weather, scheduling, cockpit distracters, and time constraints can have adverse affects on a crew. (Helmreich et al., 2001) from the University of Texas CRM department also established a set of guidelines to the sixth generation CRM program, to ensure the successful implementation of the program in aviation organizations. They stated that senior management in aviation organizations must:
1. Build trust in employees.
2. Adopt a non-punitive policy towards error.
3. Provide training in error detection, avoidance and management.
4. Provide special training in evaluating and reinforcing error avoidance, detection and management for instructors and evaluators.
5. Demonstrate a willingness to reduce error in the organization.
6. Collect data that shows the nature and types of threats and errors that occurred in the organization.
How CRM reinforces standard operational practices
CRM is the foundation that multiple aviation training and auditing programs were built off. As mentioned earlier, AQP is directly linked to CRM and was introduced during the integration of the fourth generation CRM training. AQP is also the main training program that...