Section A: Plan of Investigation
During the years of 3500 BC to 2500 BC, the geography of a land often impacted a civilizations development in great measures. Depending on the resources available or the detriments present due to certain topographical characteristics like rivers or deserts, a civilization could flourish or collapse. By studying the geographic features of growing societies like the Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris Rivers as well as the Mediterranean Sea of Egypt and Mesopotamia, the link between developing cultures and geography will be examined through sources, including Egypt: Ancient Culture, Modern Land edited by Jaromir Malek and Babylon: Mesopotamia and the Birth of Civilization by Paul Kriwaczek. To determine the extent of its influence, this investigation will attempt to compare and contrast the role of geography in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, focusing on the civilizations’ various periods of development and settlement.
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Section B: Summary of Evidence
During its years of development, specifically around in 3500, the ancient land of Egypt was located close to multiple continents, these continents being Europe, Asia, and Africa. It was separated into different divisions, mainly geographical, there being four major physical geographic sections. The first was water-based, the Nile Valley and Delta, the second two were deserts, Eastern Desert and Western Desert, and the last was the Sinai Peninsula. The ancient Egyptians also considered their land to be separated in two more divisions: “red land” and “black land”. The desert surrounding Egypt was the “red land” section because it was barren. The area served as a means of protection, as it divided Egypt from enemies that wanted to attack and neighboring countries in general. In addition, the desert contained precious metals and stones. The long-stretching banks of the Nile were deemed the “black land” because of the black silt that was deposited there. This land around the Nile and the Delta by the Mediterranean Sea was seasonally flooded. This part of the land was very fertile and good for growing crops because of the rich silt. Also spread out through Egypt, there were oases, quarries and mines. After 3000 BC, the population was mainly gathered along the Nile River, and the deserts became centrally used for trade and mining excursions. Dry climates in 2500 BC had forced the Egyptian populations to move towards the Nile Valley. Eventually, the dry climates caused the formation of deserts in the areas that had been abandoned. On the contrary, the land in the Nile Valley was very fertile, because of the silt brought by flooding, and caused agricultural successes. Main crops included barley, wheat, and flax. Not much else was grown due to a lack of innovation. Away from the main river, limited areas were suitable for settlement. In the Faiyum specifically, there was little area that was suitable for settlement because of too wet of land around Lake...