For atoms, bonding is crucial. However, different atoms bond in different ways. Making up a bond known as chemical bonding. There are two main ways that atoms can bond to each other to make larger molecules, covalent bonds and ionic bonds. We also learned about biological molecules such as, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Lastly, we learned about prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The activities that relate to this unit are Iconic vs. Covalent bonds, Bonding basics, Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells, Biological molecules, and Biochemical reactions.
In chemical bonding there are atoms, protons, neutrons, and electrons. Atoms are the simple part of the element and retain the properties of it. A proton is a positive (+) charge. An atom is determined by the number of protons it has. A neutral atom has an equal number of (+) and (-) charge. Neutrons have a neutral (0) charge. They make up the nucleus of the atom with protons. An Electron is a (-) charge. Electrons travel in orbitals around the nucleus. The first orbit has two electrons, the second orbit has 8 electrons, and the third orbit has sixteen electrons.
One type of bond is iconic. Iconic bonds are the attraction of opposite charged ions. Ions are atoms that have gained or lost an electron to have either a positive or negative charge. For example, sodium + chlorine = sodium chloride (NaCI). The overall charge on the ion is positive due to excess positive nuclear charge. In iconic bonds the electrons of a metal transfer to the electrons of a non-metal. Since, the electrons are negatively charged, when it gives an electron away it will become less negative. The atom losing the electron is usually a metal. The atom usually gaining the electron is a non-metal.
A covalent bond is when two or more atoms share an electron(s). The metal and non-metal atoms share electrons to become stable. There are more than one type of covalent bonds. There are three. Single bonds are made by sharing one electron. Double bonds are made by sharing two electrons. Lastly, triple bonds are made by sharing three electrons. A single covalent bond is known as a stigma. For example, a pair of fluorine can make a stable F2 molecule. Covalent bonds are also known as strong bonds because they aren’t broken in biological conditions. Unlike, iconic bonds which are easily broken in biological conditions like temperature and pressure.
In the activity bonding basics-Iconic bonds we learned about iconic bonds. WE completed charts for each element, the number of protons it had, the number of electrons, and the number of valence electrons. For example...
Element #of protons # of electrons # of valence electrons
Sodium 11 11 1
Chlorine 17 17 7
Beryllium 4 4 2
Fluorine 9 9 7
Lithium 3 3 1
Oxygen 8 8 6
Phosphorus 15 15 5
After making the chart we did models of iconic bonding. For example, Potassium and Fluorine. For iconic bonds the non-metals negative ion is stronger then the metals positive ion....