Children develop in many ways whether it is socially, emotionally or even physically. However, how a child develops is shown through Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory. There are five stages of the theory which are Microsystem, Mesosystem, Exosystem and Macrosystem. All these layers help us understand how children develop.
For example, “Bronfenbrenner emphasizes that to understand Child development, we must keep in mind that all relationships are bidirectional” (2000, Berk, p27). This links to the Microsystem as structures in this are those close to the child such as parents and environments such as the neighbourhood, school or even day care centres. How a child develops is mostly based on the Microsystem as “adults affect children’s behaviour” which explains that adults may have a positive or negative effect on a child as “The process and product of making human beings clearly varied by place and time”. (Bronfenbrenner, 1979, p. xiii) This help us understand when a child is born without having both parents, a school to go to or even a friendly environment like the neighbourhood, this may affect how a child develops as they may not have that fatherly figure in their life or they might not socialise with others due to no neighbourhood which is why a child needs all the structures of a Microsystem for a child to develop as a child needs a parent to give them their physical needs such as growth and helping them with their fine and gross motor skills.
The Mesosystem is the interaction of those in the Microsystem such as their environments and settings. However, this is ‘slightly more distant from the child because they do not involve him or her directly but nevertheless influence his/her life’ (Doherty, 2009, p12) For example, a child might have problem developing socially, emotionally or physically from the Microsystem in which the Mesosystem can help by if family members are not communicating such as the parents, this may affect a child emotionally in which if they interact with the Mesosystem such as the teacher then hopefully a child may be able to develop more as ‘the teacher influences the parent and the parents affect the teacher, and these interactions affect the child’ whether it be positive or negative affect (Doherty,2009,p12). This helps us understand how children develop by their emotional development as they are expressing their feelings to a teacher which is helping them develop emotionally.
The Exosystem is the layer outside the other systems such as...