How does IR Theory explain the United Nation’s contribution to the maintenance of international peace and security?
“More than ever before in human history, we share a common destiny. We can master it only if we face it together. And that is why we have the United Nations.” (Annan: 2001)
It is generally considered that international organisations ought to stand accountable for the preservation of global stability and peace, be this social, financial or diplomatic; also they must perform in the benefit of the international society.
The UN was formed for the principle of advocating and maintaining international peace and security, which combines many responsibilities to re- picture ...view middle of the document...
Although UN peacekeeping operations are used to maintain the employment of a truce or peace arrangement, they are regularly compelled to perform an active role in peacemaking attempts and could similarly be engaged in initial peacebuilding events.
Presently, peacekeeping is deployed and used as a way of improving state interests and spread the neoliberal perception of respectable authority. Peacekeeping and people’s security became the shaping mode for the UNs obligation as a “collective security” organisation in the contemporary era. This mission by the UN has expanded to incorporate human security as a legal standard for intervention. As an international security organization, UN’s major aspiration is not only to guarantee the strength of the international legal order via military organizations and negotiation but also includes appeasing the possibility of damaging events that can influence the lives of people (Zanotti, 2010).
There have been numerous attempts to understand UN peacekeeping; in the method it forms set norms or practices; or in the way it disguises powerful states interests.
Constructivism claims that identities discourse and interests are all informally built, “institutionalized” and “intersubjective” (Hurd, 2010). The way that notions or customs are understood can be changed; so it is the International Organizations (IGO) role to attempt to form a distinct meaning or standard that can be accepted by states. The IGO’s awareness of customs or notions is significant because “states are concerned simultaneously with shifting their behaviour to match the rules and reconstructing the rules to condone their behaviour” (Hurd, 2012, p.302). In order to establish if constructivism can explain UN peacekeeping, one must evaluated whether the UN has been effective in changing behaviour and creating common rules and notions. UN has long been utilising strategies of persuading and disapproval as instruments to force countries into agreement. Also, there have been many resolutions delivered by the UN Security Council calling for truces, criticising invasions, and insisting on the ending of conflicts (UN document on UNIFIL). Occasionally UN resolutions can cause international pressure that is enough to make state to change its behaviour because accepting the resolution requires the support of the five main powers in the Security Council, or not enough opposition to veto it.
On the other hand, it is not obvious whether these UN activities are successful because “moral suasion is scarcely appropriate in a community that has violated its own sense of morality” (Durch, 1993, p. 101). An illustration of UN inadequacy in acquiring agreement is with the matter of Hizbollah’s militarisation and Israel’s numerous flights above Lebanon. Since 2006, both states have violated Security Council Resolution 1701; the failure to gain compliance is due to the ineffectiveness of moral suasion and lack of coercive measures (UN documents on UNIFIL). In...