How effective is Edurant in improving the quality of life in patients with HIV-1 infection?
It was calculated that approximately 98400 ¹ adults suffered from HIV infection by the end of 2012 in the UK, with males having a significantly higher rate of catching HIV infection than women. HIV stands for human immuno-deficiency virus. This is because the virus only affects humans and causes a deficiency within their immune system - by killing white blood cells, making them more prone to diseases, and infections ¹⁵. This virus usually progresses to AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).
HIV-1 infection is a retrovirus, which inserts a DNA copy of its genome into the host cell causing it to ...view middle of the document...
The HIV virus sticks to the CD4 fusing with the cell membrane. The HIV contents are released into the cell.
The HIV enzyme reverse transcriptase converts the RNA of the virus into DNA, to be compatible with human genetic material. The DNA is transported to the cell’s nucleus where it is intervened with the human DNA by the enzyme integrase. The HIV DNA is now known as a provirus.¹⁵
Once the cell has activated the HIV genes within the cell, it undergoes the same process as the original genetic material, and creates an mRNA strand which produces HIV proteins via protein synthesis.³
The complete copies of HIV genes assemble with HIV proteins and enzymes to form viral particles. Protease is important during this stage of the HIV cycle as it breaks down long strands of the proteins into smaller ones, which produce mature viral cores. These particles infect other cells, repeating the replication process - leading to the virus spreading all over the body very quickly.⁷
HIV-1 infection is transferred between people via body fluids. Some examples include: blood, semen, vaginal liquid and breast milk⁵. This can enter through the body once in contact with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue. It can also be injected straight into the blood stream.⁷
Method of the solution to the problem
EDURANT is the name of the drug which contains the active ingredient Rilpivirine¹³. This is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor – it prevents HIV changing from a single RNA strand to a double stranded DNA molecule. This helps decrease HIV virus levels in the blood, to prolong the life of a patient suffering with HIV¹⁵. This drug is given once daily, as a 25 mg tablet.³
How the solution works:
Rilpivirine reduces the amount of HIV in the blood, therefore preventing the infection developing into Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). This medication, along with safe sex, greatly reduces the risk of transmitting the virus to others.
Rilpivirine prevents the action of the enzyme transcriptase that converts the RNA into DNA, stopping the virus from replicating and multiplying. This is used with a combination of other HIV infection treatments to prevent resistance to one medication. If HIV became resistant to a form of treatment, it may be hard to find other treatments that are similar to create a substantial impact against the virus.⁸
The HIV virus invades the cells of the immune system, making the patient more prone to life threatening diseases and illnesses⁸.This specifically targets the white blood cells (CD4 T-helper lymphocytes), which are used to fight against viruses and infections. So to treat HIV infections, the CD4 T-helper lymphocyte must be vast in population to be able to fight against the HIV virus – and so the virus must be reduced in production. This is why the 25mg tablet Edurant is very useful as it does hinder the production of the HIV virus.
(The molecular structure of Rilpivirine is C22H18N6 • HCl,...