How Was America Affected By The Fear Of Communism Between 1945 And 1960?

1728 words - 7 pages

How was America affected by the fear of Communism between 1945 and 1960?The Cold War affected America in many ways, especially involving the Fear of communism. It was a war of words, with no fighting. It was tension between the communist USSR and capitalist America, starting at the end of World War 2. When Germany lost World War 2, the four allied countries of the USA, Great Britain, France and the USSR divided Germany up into four sections, each country in control of one section. The section of Germany given to the USSR contained Berlin. France, Britain and the USA didn't want the capital of Germany to go to a communist nation, because of the fear that communism would spread throughout Europe, so Berlin was split into four sections as well. This was very difficult as a quarter of the city would turn communist, and the rest would be capitalist. The other three allied countries worked together, and each of their sections of the city and country were similar. However, the USSR separated their section a lot from the rest, even building a wall in Berlin to stop people getting in and out of their section.Tension grew stronger between the USSR and the three allied countries, as the USSR tried to turn other European countries communist. America really didn't want this and were scared of what would happen if communism started spreading. The USSR succeeded in converting many Eastern European countries to communism, such as Yugoslavia, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Bulgaria. Soon, the president of America, Franklin D Roosevelt starting speaking of an 'Iron Curtain' - a metaphorical curtain separating West capitalist countries, and East Communist countries. President Roosevelt was attempting to draw a line separating the communist countries from the capitalist ones, to try and stop communism spreading to Western European countries. He didn't want it to get any further towards America.Harry Truman, who was a United States Senator and Vice President, became President of the United States in 1945. In 1947, he launched the Marshall Plan, also called the European Recovery Programme (EPR). It was a plan to rebuild and create a stronger foundation for the allied countries of Europe and repelling communism. Harry Truman was giving so much attention to matters that weren't immediately involving his country. This was because he hated communism so much, he wanted to eradicate it completely from the world. In this plan was the Truman Doctrine. President Truman gave $601 million to Italy and $62 million to Spain, on the grounds of helping them financially so they didn't have to turn to communism and communist countries for help. This was in actual fact, a bribe. America must have been very scared of the spread of communism, if they were prepared to give away this much money. This affected America because it affected their economy massively and must have had an impact on the American public and society. The launch of the Marshall plan was the first time America actually...

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