For infants, young children and adolescents taking part in exercise, it can help with proper development of the skeleton and bones, muscles, joints and strength. High impact exercises that are performed safely and at the right intensity for the specific age groups can increase bone thickness, density and resistance, without having any effect on growth in length as long as the exercise performed is not too intense or involve too much high impact or weight bearing exercise.
When exercise is to intense and there is too much pressure being placed on the bones, cartilage, ligaments and tendons it can be harmful to a child's health and can affect growth rate. “High impact sports and the intense, repeated training that they require are likely to generate psychological competition stress and recurrent micro-trauma. This may be responsible for a temporary growth blockage in weight and height, due to upset neurohormonal regulations in the hypothalamus and the hypothesis” according to the (danoneinstitute).
Children have disproportionately long legs compared to the rest of their body meaning that there body is out of balance and this can therefore affect children’s coordination of limbs. Puberty begins at different at different ages for boys and girls. Puberty starts at 12 years old for girls and finishes at 16 years old and for boys puberty begins at 14 years old and finishes at 18 years old. The differences in physical attributes between boys and girls occur at puberty in response to changes in hormones produced by the body. For girls oestrogen is more prominent and for boys testosterone is more prominent. For boys the release in testosterone results in the increase of shoulder width and a little change in hip width in boys and an increase in hip width and a little change in shoulder width in girls due to the release of oestrogen.
For both boys and girls before they go puberty the increase in body mass is simultaneously increased in parallel with height and for boys body mass continues to increase during the stages of puberty. Boys especially in adolescence experience changes in body composition. They tend to gain more muscle mass than fat. Due to an increase in a hormone called testosterone teenage boys have a high increase in lean muscle mass. Girls in puberty produce a hormone called oestrogen. This increases girls fat percentage in the body and girls also have higher body mass index due to a higher increase in weight compared to height. The amount of fat girls put on is similar to the amount of muscle mass they gain. Boys generally tend to be stronger than girls after puberty, due to having more lean muscle mass but when girls first hit puberty they tend to be stronger than boys, due to...