How Gender And Age Effect Happiness

2154 words - 9 pages

This study examines how gender and age effect how individuals select what they deem as happiness. Genders are affected by society’s roles they grouped into and how this changes their point of view on different predictors of happiness. This study also examines how social structural variables affect happiness, for example, marital status, and income. The study breaks down the participants into subgroups – gender and age under 25 and over to try and understand why individuals select specific events as happy moments in their lives.

This study hypothesizes that the predictors of happiness differ between males and females and changes with age. The researchers of this study are trying to demonstrate a difference in the predictors of happiness for males and female and how the predictors of happiness evolve over the aging process. An important aspect of Happiness or well-being is that it fluctuates for individuals. Researchers have been studying the different aspects of what they feel stimulates changes in happiness. There is important research that demonstrates the significance of gender and age on happiness. Underlying factors, such as personality may affect an individual’s perspective of being happy. When researching happiness there are two dimensions that were found to have different correlates. This in turn means the argument that positive and negative affect are distinct dimensions of well-being and the balance between them serves as the index of happiness (Ryff, 1989, p. 1070).
Classic studies on happiness have assumed that sociodemographic and social structural variables, like age, gender, marital status, and income played a principal part in individual’s differences in happiness (Mroczek & Kolarz, 1998, p.1333). This approach was known as the “social indicators movement”. This theory believes that sociodemographically defined group’s drive happiness. For instance, those who were married and had higher income were happier than others because of variance availability of psychological, physical and material resources (Mroczek & Kolarz, 1998, p.1333). Researchers that followed this believed that differences in happiness were a by-product of these group differences. In research that is similar to this study, contextual risk factors should intuitively predict happiness. In a situation where an older person, who is facing declining health, the death of peers and spouse, and other unavoidable events that accompany aging, appear to be happier than a younger person. Researchers expected lower levels of happiness with the elderly, though the results have shown that happiness is not affected by adverse context that are brought on by the aging process (Mroczek & Kolarz, 1998, p. 1333). Carstensen 1991, 1995 argued the notion that well-being may increase with age due to age-graded changes in emotional regulation. This outcome may be related to the fact that older people have a different view of the future and try to...

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