How Iodine 131 Works In Everyday Applications

1177 words - 5 pages

Iodine-131 is a naturally found radioisotope and its radioactivity has useful purposes in everyday applications. For example, Iodine 131 can diagnose and treat cancer of the thyroid glands. Iodine 131 may have many positive uses, however, if ingested the affects can seriously harm one’s body. Alpha Decay is when an unstable atom’s nucleus releases two protons and two neutrons (commonly referred to as a helium atom), which are called alpha particles (Lab, n.d.) . Since both mass and atomic number changes, the element also changes (Lab, n.d.). Alpha particles cannot go through paper (Lab, n.d.), nevertheless, can cause damage on the internal organs if consumed. Beta radiation is the release of beta particles, which are electrons ejected from a decaying atom (Lab, n.d.). Beta radiation cannot pass through Aluminium (Lab, n.d.). Beta-minus decay occurs when a neutron turns into a proton, electron and an antineutrino(Lab, n.d.). An antineutrino is the “antiparticle” of a neutrino particle, which is an electrically neutral particle (Lab, n.d.). A neutrino has a mass close to zero and reacts very weakly towards normal matter (Lab, n.d.). Gamma radiation is the release of gamma rays (Lab, n.d.). These rays produce electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength than those of an X-ray. They are able to penetrate paper and aluminium but are not able to pass through a certain thickness of lead (Lab, n.d.). A radioisotope is another term for a radioactive isotope.

Half- life is the time it takes for the half the number of radioactive atoms in a sample to decay.The element Iodine has one hundred and forty isotopes (Lab, n.d.). The Isotope with a mass of 127 being the most stable. Since there are so many different isotopes, a comparison of several should be enough to show how different each one can be. I have chosen the following isotopes because of their mass
number, half-life and decay mode. Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode108 Approximately 36 milliseconds Alpha Decay 113 Approximately 6.6 seconds Alpha Decay 127 (stable isotope) - - 131 Approximately 8 days Beta-minus decay + Gamma Decay 138 Approximately 6 seconds Beta-minus decay 145 >405 nanoseconds Beta-minus decay Here are the correct conventions of these isotopes: Mass Number 108 Correct Conventions Mass Number= protons + neutrons Protons will always equal 53 as the number of protons in Iodine does not change Neutrons= 108-53= 55 Configuration= 2,8,18,18,7 113 Mass Number= protons + neutrons Protons will always equal 53 as the number of protons in Iodine does not change Neutrons= 113-53= 60 Configuration= 2,8,18,18,7 127 Mass Number= protons + neutrons Protons will always equal 53 as the number of protons in Iodine does not change Neutrons= 127-53= 74 Configuration= 2,8,18,18,7 131 Mass Number= protons + neutrons Protons will always equal 53 as the number of protons in Iodine does not change Neutrons= 131-53= 78 Configuration= 2,8,18,18,7 138 Mass Number= protons + neutrons Protons will always...

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