This essay will focus on leadership within an organization and how it affects individual and organizational outcomes specifically using four theories including Fielder’s Contingency Model, Hersey and Blanchard situational leadership Model, Path Goal Theory by House and Dessler and finally the Participative Leadership Model by Vroom and Yetton. Leadership is said to be a dynamic interactive process, which involves the four other management functions, planning organizing, directing and controlling. Leadership is one of the most important roles of a manager; it is the process of influencing a organized group of individuals towards the achievement of a vision or set of goals. It must provide direction toward future aspirations and goal achievement.
Through the centuries, different leadership theories have emerged. These theories focus on the qualities distinguished between leaders and staff/employees, and others looked at factors like situation and skill lever. Of these eight theories we will look at four.
Fred Fiedler developed the first comprehensive contingency model; it dated back to the 1960s. Fielder’s ideas were very important because they provided a systematic and quantifiable measurement to the construct of leadership, and also the theory describes the necessary managerial actions. Fiedler contingency model shows the relationship between the leader’s orientation or style and group performance under differing situational conditions. It proposed that for effective group performance there must be a proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control (Robbins); there is no best way for a manager to lead, no best leading style. Leaders effectiveness depends on the situation they are faced with. Contingency theories focuses on a variable which is related to the environment and can determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation according to the theory, leadership styles will form differently in all situations Leadership style, qualities of the employees and aspects of the situation are the variables success depends on. The theory is based on determining the orientation of the leader, the elements of the situation and the leader orientation that was found to be most effective as the situation changed.
The first thing in this model is to identify the leadership style, which Fielder believed was to be fixed and could be measured using the Least Preference Co-Worker Scale (LPC) which is done by carrying out a questionnaire based on specific factors. The low LPC-leaders are more likely to be task-orientated leaders, these people view their LPCs more negatively, they are effective at completing tasks so they are good with organizing and group work. Thy tend to be eager and impatient to get their work done while carrying a no nonsense attitude whereas the relationship oriented leaders, the high LPC-Leaders, they see there LPCs more positively, they can handle...