Because the malaria parasite exists in human red blood cells which form part of blood, it is possible for malaria to be passed on from one person to the next via organ transplant, shared use of sharp objects that come in contact with blood such as knives, needles and syringes; it can also be passed on through blood transfusion. An infected mother can also card malaria on to her unborn baby during the process of birth (delivery).Malaria passed on in this matter is called congenital malaria.
Because malaria can only be passed on through blood, a person cannot “latch" malaria from others just by being near an infected person. You can kiss and hug a malaria infected person with no risk of ...view middle of the document...
Climatic conditions such as rainfall patterns, temperature and moisture that may affect the breeding, survival and subsequent number of mosquitoes may have an on the transmission rate. However in many areas around the world, transmission may be determined by seasonal, with the highest infection rates experienced during the rainy season. ("Impact Malaria - On-line training on malaria: E-module 2: Vectors and Transmission", 2012, p. 1-2)
Because weather is a determining factor on in the infection concentration, a change in climate and weather patterns can trigger a malaria epidemic. Similarly a change in the immediate environment that leads to conditions that sharply favor transmission in areas where people do not have little or no immunity to malaria can also trigger an epidemic .Epidemics can also occur when people with low immunity migrate into areas with concentrated malaria transmissions, for example to seek jobs, or as refugees. ("Impact Malaria - On-line training on malaria: E-module 2: Vectors and Transmission", 2012, p. 1-2) the aspect of immunity is another important factor, especially among adults in areas of intense transmission conditions. Partial immunity is developed as a result of years of exposure to the parasite, and while it does not provide full and permanent protection, it reduces the possibility of contracting a severe infection of malaria that will lead to disease. It is for these reasons that most malaria caused deaths in Africa occur amongst young children, however in areas with less transmission and subsequent low immunity all people are at risk regardless of age. ("Impact Malaria - On-line training on malaria: E-module 2: Vectors and Transmission", 2012, p. 1-2)
Symptoms and Diagnosis
In regions where Malaria is endemic, local people usually have a level of immunity, which means that although they might get infected by malaria, they are less likely to show symptoms.
The severity of Malaria symptoms is influenced by several factors: The type of parasite that infects the person, the victim’s level of immunity and on whether the person still has his/her spleen.
The early stage symptoms of Malaria include a high fever or a sudden increase in body temperature, re-occurring chills, persistent headache as well as sudden feelings of tiredness (fatigue) and in the most severe cases. The victim may feel heavily nauseated and experiences instances of vomiting ("WHO | Prevention and control of malaria epidemics (archived)", 2003, p. 2-12)
At the early stage of infection. The symptoms tend to be less severe. This means that at different stage of infection, there is a difference in symptoms. A person that has had malaria for 2 months will not exhibit the same symptoms as that of someone with malaria for 6 months. The duration and severity of the symptoms also differ per specific wave, depending on each cycle of infection. However, early on during the infection, symptoms may not follow this particular...