Introduction of findings
Researchers correlate effective organizational leadership with certain characteristics. McHugh (2009) stated that “there may be no other feature of American life that contains as much bias toward extroversion as leadership.” This means that debate still exists whether or not introverts may be effective as leaders compared to extroverts. Some researches would argue that introverts are more reserved and prefer to work alone without the aid of anyone else. Introverts are also believed to appear helpless and have a tendency to be submissive (Costa & McCrae, 1992, as cited in Bernerth, Armenakis, Field, Giles, & Walker, 2007). Furthermore, because of an introvert’s desire for independence, this would indicate that they are more introspective and think things through before acting on it; therefore, preventing impulse decisions that would potentially harm an organization.
On the other hand, extroverts have been described by Costa and McCrae’s “Big Five Theory” of personality traits as individuals who prefer being in the company of others. These people do not like working alone and are able to negotiate better within teams (Bernerth, et al., 2007). An extrovert exhibits bold, assertive behavior, and he is willing to take chances. Because an extrovert tends to possess self confidence, he is able to influence others more easily (Goldburg, 1990, as cited in Cable & Judge, 2003).
Judge and Bono theorized that extroverts, based on the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personalities, make better transformational leaders (as cited in Hautala, 2006). A transformational leader is one who is able to instill the company’s vision into the minds of its employees, and move them to perform at a higher level. When someone is more involved in his work, he will go above and beyond what is required in order to accomplish greater results (Bernerth, et al., 2007). This, on turn, makes a transformational leader a more efficient and effective leader (Felfe, Tartler, & Liepmann, 2004; Schiro, 1999).
Although there has been much research on personalities and leadership with an emphasis on extroversion, the trend is changing. More developments are proving that effective leaders need not be extroverts (McHugh, 2009). This means that organizations are using other methods in search of their next transformational leader. The findings will indicate that as times are changing, so are our expectations and outcomes. A different kind of leader is emerging.
Studies have been done that resulted in the development of several different personality tests that would indicate a person’s primary traits and characteristics. Jung’s work on psychological types based a person’s personality on eight different preferences. Myers and Briggs further developed Jung’s work and developed a combination of these preferences resulting in 16 different personality types that would indicate how a person perceives themselves and their awareness of...