This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

How Pocket Refuges Helped In The Transition Between Glacial And Interglacial And How They Will Help Us Understand Future Transitions Due To Global War

1389 words - 6 pages

During the last ice age, a large glacier reigned over Canada and the northern United States. Plants and animals found within these regions shifted over time into areas that were free of ice and established themselves until the ice retreated. These areas were known as glacial refugia (Dyke, Moore , et al, 2003). A refugium is an isolated location inhabited with a segregated population of one or more species. Areas like these can be found in all corners of the earth and can contain very high amounts of biodiversity. These refugia form during climatic changes, such as global warming and may also form during changes in geography or human activity, such as deforestation (Leonard and Hogan, 2013). Forest pocket refuges are a specific kind of refuge that has a substantial impact on the distribution of the earth’s major forests. Pocket refuges provided a haven for forest migration during the glacial retreat from the Pleistocene to the Holocene era. Without these unique locations, many tree species would not have survived the climate shifts of the glacial period (Delcourt, 2002). Finding these pocket refuges today opens up a window into the past, but how can they be used in order to predict the future?
Forest pocket refuges are located all around the globe. A study was done by Buso and Pessenda regarding the regions of the Atlantic forest in Brazil. The experiment used sediment palynology and carbon isotopes of SOM to study vegetation dynamics and their relationship with climate changes. Other studies, based on molecular phylogeography and patterns of plant taxa distribution, have suggested that the Atlantic Forest was a forest refuge during the late Quaternary period (Busco, Pessenda, et al, 2013).. This evidence showed forest expansion and retraction during the climate oscillations of the Quaternary. Buso and Pessenda’s work also coheres to the hypothesis that the Atlantic Forest was a refuge site for forest satiability during these climate shifts (Busco, Pessenda, et al, 2013).
Another location of forest refuges was found in the Western Amazonian lowland rainforest. This study specifically looked at vascular epiphytes in the Western Amazonian biome of Yasunı´. Epiphytes are defined as non-parasitic plants that attach themselves to other plants merely for support (Encyclopedia Britannica Online, 2012). The vascular epiphyte in Yasunı´ was compared to 16 neotropic ecozone epiphyte inventories. The elevation composition of eight selected inventories was analyzed (Kreft, Koster et al, 2014). What was found was that present and past patterns of rainfall are the driving forces behind diversity of vascular epiphytes in Western Amazonia. Yasunı´ is characterized by high species richness and that the relatively moist climate in Western Amazonia during the Pleistocene probably led to fewer extinctions and more biodiversity than in the surrounding lowlands. These differences in the geographical elevation and the species found there...

Find Another Essay On How Pocket Refuges helped in the Transition between Glacial and Interglacial and How They Will Help Us Understand Future Transitions Due to Global War

Déjà Vu: Motifs of Hitler in Richard III(1995) and How They Help Modern Audience to Understand Shakespeare’s Richard

1869 words - 8 pages various situations. This motif of speech master is replayed later in the movie when Richard is talking to the mass. “The staging itself reminded the audience of how fascists use such panoramas: […] Hitler at the Nazi Party Conference at Nuremberg in 1934 as reevoked in the monumental Triumph of the Will” (Crowl, 53). The huge red scrolls and banners with Richard’s badge of boar, the vast crowd waving red flags, all these imageries created by

Analise how links between the beginning and end of the novel 'Lord of the Flies' written by William Golding helped you to understand a main theme or issue

1601 words - 6 pages The novel “Lord of the flies” is written by William Golding, inspired by his own personal experiences, during World War II. Through out the novel “lord of the flies” links are shown between the beginning and end which help you to understand the main theme. In the novel a group of school boys aged from 6-12 are traveling on a plane, evacuating from England when they are shot down and crash-land onto a deserted island. The

How My Current and Future Academic and Extra- Curricular Activities Will Help Me to Reach My Life Time Goals

915 words - 4 pages the part, that didn’t stop me, I still went to class every day and practiced to get better. In college, I plan on entering the Radio, Television, Film program to study strictly acting and making movies. That will help me tremendously, how better to prepare me for my lifetime goal of becoming an actress, than by taking class strictly based for acting. Many famous actors and directors visit UT’s RTF program a year, they talk about what it takes

How does sociology help us to understand 'class' as an important social phenomenon?

675 words - 3 pages How does sociology help us to understand 'class' as an important social phenomenon?Sociology emerged in the nineteenth century as an attempt to understand the transition from traditional to modern society. Many argue that class is no longer important as a social phenomenon as an individual's identity are based more on status and cultural factors such as lifestyle, values, intelligence, education. Others argue that class is still a central

How does Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory help us understand how children develop?

803 words - 3 pages varied by place and time”. (Bronfenbrenner, 1979, p. xiii) This help us understand when a child is born without having both parents, a school to go to or even a friendly environment like the neighbourhood, this may affect how a child develops as they may not have that fatherly figure in their life or they might not socialise with others due to no neighbourhood which is why a child needs all the structures of a Microsystem for a child to develop

What is a satellite? How can they help us daily / what is the purpose with satellites. How do they orbit? Satellite Power Sources

1471 words - 6 pages will stay in motion unless something pushes or pulls on it. Without gravity an Earth-orbiting satellite would go off into space along a straight line. With gravity it is pulled back toward the Earth. There is a constant tug-of-war between the satellites tendency to move in a straight line, or momentum, and the tug of gravity pulling it back.An object's momentum and gravity have to be balanced for an orbit to happen. If the forward momentum of one

How does Jesper Stromback’s Four-Dimension Concept of Mediatisation of Politics Help us Better Understand Political Communication?

2372 words - 10 pages politics” into four dimensions, which help us better understand how political communication is mediatised. The four dimensions can be seen as the application of concepts of “mediation” and “mediatisation” in politics. The first dimension is about the degree that the media become the dominant source of political communication. It can be stated that this prerequisite dimension is about mediation of politics, which refers to great dependence on

Better Treatment of Animals Will Help us to Remain Human

1837 words - 7 pages dead or unable to move. Once they enter the slaughterhouse they are skinned and dismembered improperly due to the federal humane slaughter act. Leather production is also harmful to human kind. EPA has acknowledged that livestock pollution is the greatest threat to our waterways (PETA). Turning skin into leather requires a large amount of energy and dangerous chemicals. People who work in and live near tanneries who suffer from cancer possibly

Would Equal Global Water Distribution Help Lessen the gap Between Rich and Poor Countries?

1924 words - 8 pages supply, and the poor may not become self-sufficient with the presence of aid. I still believe that equal global water distribution will help lessen the gap between the rich and the poor due to the potential increase in economic stability, decrease in school absenteeism, and raised standards of living. Although I also believe after my research on the matter that aid should be somewhat limited and kept in moderation to still instill a sense of self

In Scene Three Blanche meets Mitch and witnesses turbulent passion. What are the similarities between Blanche and Mitch and do they have any future prospects together?

1204 words - 5 pages From the moment that Mitch and Blanche are introduced, it is clear to the audience that they have a 'certain interest' in one another. Immediately previous to their meeting, Mitch talks of his 'sick mother'. This reveals a sensitive side to his character, which contrasts with the vulgarity and coarseness of his peers. Blanche has clearly been unimpressed by the manners of Stanley and his other friends, which hints that she will like Mitch rather

How has exposure to the study of marketing and society helped me to understand how I consume and what influences my decisions and the society in g

664 words - 3 pages 1. Introduction In the following paper the the connection between marketing and society will be examined based on my own experience and observations. The main theory this paper will cover is the concept of MCDN that was mainly formulated by George Ritzer. He observed some tendencies in the behaviour of people and markets and found similarities of this development to the concept behind the american fast food chain McDonalds. Furthermore

Similar Essays

The Migration Of Trees Into Pocket Refuges And The Future Of Those Refuges

1426 words - 6 pages retreat from the Pleistocene to the Holocene era. Without these unique locations, many tree species would not have survived the climate shifts of the glacial period (Delcourt, 2002). Finding these pocket refuges today opens up a window into the past, but how can they be used in order to predict the future? Forest pocket refuges are located all around the globe. A study was done by Buso and Pessenda regarding the regions of the Atlantic forest

Critical Essay On The Personality Test Theory And How Different Issues Helped Us To Understand The Human Mind

586 words - 2 pages In our study of psychology, we have applied different types of skills in our tasks. Among the different types of skills are communication, critical, mathematical, small group perception, global perspectives, societal perspectives, personal wellness, information skills, scientific views and large group perceptions. All these skills has been vital to our understanding of psychology since it combines different perspectives and facts.On the

Analyse How Links Between The Beginning And End Helped You Understand A Main Theme Or Issue

508 words - 2 pages that Billy jumps into a single, bright spotlight. This represents that he is no longer confused about his future and hopes. His dream of becoming a ballet dancer is now defined. This contrast between the beginning and the end helped to establish a link between the two scenes which in turn helped me to understand one of the main themes, struggle. Through contrast I realised and understood that despite hardship and confusion about the future and

How Technology Affects Us Now And How It Will In The Future

1614 words - 6 pages How Technology Affects Us Now and How It Will In The Future Imagine waking up and not having a car to take you to work, and you can’t get coffee from a machine or watch the news on TV. This is the kind of morning you’d have if you didn’t have technology. It’s kind of hard to imagine and a bit scary too because technology is something we use every day. As you may know technology is everywhere and very hard to avoid. There are some things you