In the 1860s the civil war was raging on. One of the biggest issues of the war was slavery. For four long years the north and south fought. Both sides had many successful battles like fredresicksburk and Gettysburg. Finally in the spring of 1865, General Robert E. Lee surrendered the last major Confederate army to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865. Emidiantly following five years after wars congress passed the three amendments 13th, 14th, and 15th. These three amendments were intended to restructure the United States from a country that was half free to one that guaranteed blessings of liberty to the entire population, including the former slaves and their descendants. These amendments created a spark that led to a series of events that changed America in way that nothing else has
The 13th amendment granted freedom to all slaves and abolished slavery or any kind of unwilling servitude in America. The 14th amendment granted made all slaves or people who are born within the country American citizens. The 15th amendment granted all slaves the right to vote. By making the amendments the congress of America were trying to end discrimination in the country. These three amendments were intended to restructure the United States from a country that was half free to one that guaranteed blessings of liberty to the entire populace, including the former slaves and their descendants.
Now that African Americans were free they had to decide what they were going to do. Some moved out to the north and west but many stayed in the south. They got together their scattered families and built churches that also served as community centers, employment agencies, and school houses. For the first time black people could legalize and celebrate their marriages, set up housekeeping, and even choses were they were going to live. They also learned the importance of reading and writing. By 1869, as many as 300,000 black adults and children were acquiring basic literacy.
Even though everything seemed all good. Many people in the south didn’t want them there and they really didn’t want them to vote. Secret organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan used violence against African Americans.
Citizenship afforded black southerners the right to vote in local and federal elections, and for a few black people it provided the means to serve their country in government or in the military. Some African Americans opened up businesses or bought farmland. IN developing the Farmers Alliances, white leaders in some places invited black farmers to join, reasoning that the alliance would be stronger if all farmers took part. In this way, the Farmers Alliance offered a glimpse of the political possibilities of interracial cooperation.
Perhaps the most important gain for southern African Americans, however, was access to education. Hundreds of basic literacy schools and dozens of teachers colleges enabled African Americans to learn to read and...