Within the eukaryotic cell there are many integral processes that occur in a host of organelles with specialised functions. The focus of each function has allowed eukaryotic organisms to act with great efficiency and yield many products in a single cell. As a result of the complexity of these cells, transport of molecules is an intricate process requiring many compartments to complete the tasks (Cooper 2000). The endomembrane system together with the mitochondria, chloroplasts and cytoskeleton are essential adaptions in ensuring proper functioning of eukaryotic cell processes.
Eukaryotes are larger more complex organisms that can perform more complex and wider range of activities than prokaryotes. The organelles that are only present in a eukaryotic cell allow for the more intricate functions to occur. However along with these processes there also needed to be systems created to allow for activities that need to take place in eukaryotes just like prokaryotes. (Kabnick, Peattie 1991)
Genetic material that allows processes in a cell to occur is present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, as opposed to prokaryotic cells where the cell information is dispersed throughout the cell, most of the eukaryotes genetic information is housed within a double membrane bound nucleus, separated from the rest of the cell (Davidson 2005). The Deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) never leaves the nucleus itself and therefore ensures that no genetic information is lost. Because the genetic information is not freely in the cytoplasm-as in prokaryotes- transcription occurs in the nucleus while translation occurs outside the nuclear membrane along the endomembrane system (Griswold 2008).
Once out of the nuclear envelope mRNA needs to be transcribed into proteins and transported along the endomembrane system. Because of the intricacies of the eukaryotic cell the transport of proteins is reliant on the endomembrane system. The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is the first stage in synthesising proteins. A system Ribosomes are essential in all types of organisms. Eukaryotes have both free ribosomes in the cytoplasm and bound ribosomes on the endoplasmic reticulum. Free ribosomes play a similar role to ribosomes in prokaryotic cells because they act within the cytosol for roles such as the first stage of the breakdown of sugar. However the bound ribosomes...