Today’s business performs in form of a corporation or an organization that consists with various people to conduct and perform work tasks for such a company to achieve its business goals. Therefore, those people who work for such companies should be treated equally for receiving an opportunity to achieve their lives as they are humans under the ethical and moral concern. Moreover, everyone who lives in the same nation should also have the right to pursue his or her achievement through ability of such a person, not because of other factors such as gender, age, race and ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, disabilities, and social status, or because a person is discriminated by those factors.
In 1961, Affirmative Action was created by President John F. Kennedy, which had its purpose regarded to gender and race in employment, and was a movement of Equal Employment Opportunity Act (Fullinwider, 2009; Gomez-Mejia & Balkin, 2002; University of California, 2002) According to Byras and Rues (2004), they defined that “equal employment opportunity refers to the right of all people to work and to advance on the basis of merit, ability and potential” (p. 43). Therefore, some important laws of equal employment opportunity in which human resources managers should know are as the following.
Equal Pay Act of 1963
The Pay Act of 1963 prohibit sex-based discrimination in pay rate to employees which means employees of such companies who work the same or similar jobs get paid the same rate of pay either they are man or woman. However, the act allow such companies to use difference of wage, salary, or other compensations based on seniority, merit, quantity and quality of production, or a differential due to any factors other than sex and other discrimination issues (Byars & Rue, 2004).
For example, Hilton uses the same wage for all new hired employees of housekeeping department regardless of experience. However, after one year of employment, each employee may have the wage raised upon employee performance evaluation that results such employees may not have the same pay rate which is not unlawful. Furthermore, in case of some position that requires experience or expertise of working field such as accountant, sales representative, or manager therefore candidate may receive different pay rate depended on his or her experience and ability.
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 p. 43-44
The Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is the keystone federal legislation in equal employment opportunity that covers disparate treatment and disparate impact discrimination and creates the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Disparate treatment or unequal treatment “refers to intentional discrimination and involves treating one class of employees differently from other employees” (Byars & Rue, 2004, p. 44). Disparate impact or adverse impact “refers to unintentional discrimination and involves employment practices that appear to be neutral but adversely...