Hsc Biology Syllabus Genetics: The Code Broken? (Option) All Dot Points Answered

7076 words - 28 pages

9.7 - Genetics: The Code Broken? (Option)1. The structure of a gene provides the code for a polypeptide:•Describe the processes involved in the transfer of information from DNA through RNA to the production of a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide:-The structures involved in polypeptide synthesis are:DNA: A gene contains a sequence of bases to code for a protein. Every set of 3 bases is called a codon.RNA: RNA is similar to DNA except that instead of deoxyribose as the sugar, it has ribose. It is single stranded, and instead of thymine, there is uracil. There are 3 forms involved in polypeptide synthesis:mRNA: Messenger RNA carries the genetic code outside the nucleus, into the cytoplasm, where it can be read by ribosomestRNA: Transfer RNA carries the amino acids to the ribosomes to link and form a polypeptide chain. tRNA are shaped like clover leaves; there is a different type for every amino acid. At the bottom of every tRNA molecule is an anti-codon that binds to the codon on the mRNA strand. That is how the amino acid is linked to the codon.Ribosomal RNA: Ribosomes are made up of protein and RNARibosomes: The ribosome is the active site for protein synthesis. It is made up of protein and RNA molecules. It can accommodate 2 tRNA at a time.Enzymes: The enzyme that controls the formation of mRNA is RNA polymerase. There are, of course, many other enzymes that control the process.-STAGE ONE - Transcription:A double stranded DNA molecule in the nucleus unwinds a section of itself that consists of a single gene.One of the strands coding for the gene exposes itself to the nucleoplasmThe enzyme, RNA polymerase moves along the strand, attaching loose RNA nucleotides to the DNA, with A-U and C-G, until the whole gene is copied.This new RNA strand is called messenger RNA (mRNA)A start codon, and a stop codon determine the length of the gene-STAGE TWO - Translation:The mRNA strand binds to a ribosome in the cytoplasm, with the start codon being AUG (always). However, AUG also codes for the amino acids methionine. This amino acid is usually removed laterThe ribosome moves along the mRNA strand, to 'read' more of its bases.tRNA molecules floating in the cytoplasm, which have anti-codons complementary to the codons of the mRNA enter the ribosome. Eg, if the mRNA had an AAG codon, the UUC tRNA would bind to itAs the tRNA releases its amino acid to attach to the ribosome, it leaves, to find another amino acid. The ribosome can only accommodate 2 tRNA.The ribosome moves along the mRNA, and more and more amino acids are attached, with peptide bonds, to the growing polypeptide chain.When a 'stop' codon is reached, the polypeptide chain is released into the cytoplasm, for further processing, to become a protein.•Outline the current understanding of gene expression:-A gene is expressed when its polypeptide is synthesised, converted to a protein, and the protein is fully functional-Gene Expression - PROCARYOTES (Operon Theory):Protein synthesis in...

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