Literature Review Supporting Research on Bullying
After reviewing and analyzing multiple sources in relation to the widespread issue of bullying in schools and academic achievement, it is apparent that there is a strong negative relationship between the two factors. That is to say that bullying is a huge problem in a lot of schools. To determine how to prevent and minimize the occurrence of bullying, there must be an understanding of the issue by defining and categorizing what bullying is, then a compilation of data and findings, and finally responses or proposals for how schools should proceed to educate students, faculty and parents.
Defining what bullying is and how it occurs in schools is the first step to problem solving and reducing the amount of bullying. Initially a person may think that bullying is when a child uses his hands and feet to hit and kick someone, injure with objects etc. – physically beat another person up. This is most definitely accurate and seen in school both in real life and on television, but only a fraction of a much larger picture. Bullying as defined by Seely is, “Intentional harm-doing, which can take a number of forms, including: Physical victimization (contact or mean gestures), Verbal victimization (name-calling or taunts), Indirect victimization (such as intentional exclusion from a group), and Cyberbullying” (Seely, 2011). So, not only is bullying a physical attack, but the use of attitude (indirect), verbal taunts, and communication online and any combination of these actions. There does not seem to be any apparent indicators of why students choose to bully, but research indicates that those who do perform bullying activities show a lack of empathy for their fellow students.
A team of mental health professionals at the Clerc Center in Washington holds workshops for students about bullying. Responses from these students when asked about bullying included, “Boss people around, brag, haze people, humiliate people, make fun of people, and spread rumors about people” (Fidler, 2004) Clearly, students know what bullying is and are subjected to it whether an adult is made aware of the situation or not; this has become a hot topic in schools, but bullying has been around a long time although largely unreported. According to Massari, there is a secret code among children that prevents them from getting help and that children fear retaliation for breaking this code of silence. It is also reported that besides physical and verbal bullying, there is also emotional bullying such as “relational aggression and cyber bullying” (Massari, 2011). This victimization can happen over a period of time, and these students need support from their schools instead of feelings of isolation that tends to happen. Yet another study that indicates how bullying occurs in school, “Name calling, exclusion, pushing, disrespect of people and property, and intimidation” (Anderson, 2008). With all these...