Socialization is a process in which a newcomer adapts the behaviour pattern of the organizations surrounding culture and acquires knowledge and attitudes needed to become an effective insider to an organization (Van Maanen and Schein, 1979)
Organization Socialization for a newcomer staff member is very essential as adjustment during initial entry is generally believed the most intense and problematic phase and by the process of socialization a newcomer get in speed with the organization and adapt its environment, it becomes easier for the newcomer to learn organizational values ,norms and resources. Organizations invest a good amount of money and resources on the process of recruitment and selection (Bauer et al., 1998), getting a newcomer quickly up to speed is important as they are hired to contribute. Past research shows that there have been negative impacts of no socialization in an organization and its employees, organizations experience unmet expectations while negative behaviour and poor attitude are seen in newcomers with no socialization whereas successful socialization results in organizational attachment and commitment, job satisfaction, social integration, role clarity, task mastery and values congruence (Wanous and Colella, 1989)
According to previous research both the individual behaviour and organization actions are responsible for effective socialization (Van Maanen and Schein, 1979). Therefore, the two methods for socialization are socialization tactics offered by organizations and socialization techniques used by newcomers themselves. Newcomers can be classified into two categories i.e. graduate newcomers or experienced newcomers (Carr et al, 2006). Graduate newcomers seeks for organizational guidance whereas experienced newcomers forge their own role and rely more on their own adjustment strategies.
Socialization is an ongoing process and there are three main phases of socialization (i) Anticipatory Socialization : this phase involves knowing about the organization before entering the organization i.e. from organizations representatives etc. (ii) Encounter : it is a phase where a newcomer employee starts his job and begins to learn about the tasks and receive training (iii) Metamorphosis : During this phase the employee begins to feel comfortable with his role , the job demands and builds his social relationships, from an outsider he becomes insider to the organization.
Van Maanen and Schein in 1979 introduced a socialization tactic model which is one of the most commonly used approaches in understanding socialization. This model was used by organizations to stricture the socialization experiences of newcomers they proposed that various combination of tactics can be used by an organization to convey information to organizational newcomers which can be used in different configurations to achieve distinct outcomes ranging from a custodial orientation through innovation to the content or remit of the role. Van Maanen and Schein...