Human African Trypanosomaisis A.K.A. African Sleeping Sickness

919 words - 4 pages

The Human African Trypanosomiasis, more commonly referred to as African sleeping sickness, is a biological vector-borne parasitic ("Trypanosomiasis, human african," 2014). The communicable infection is caused by protozoan parasite of the genus Trypanosoma. Transmission occurs to humans by tsetse flies bites. The tsetse flies acquire infection when feeding on blood containing trypomastigotes from infected humans or animals. The parasite will go through asexual reproduction in the fly gut, evolving from a procyclic trypomastigotes to epimastigotes. Eventually moving to the salivary glands of the Tsetse fly where they transform to a metacyclic trypomastigote, which is infectious to humans. Transmission from fly to human happens when an infected tsetse fly passes metacyclic trypomastigotes within the saliva into the blood while feeding. This then becomes trypomastigotes and will proliferate in the blood and other bodily fluids, which leads to disease (Krafsur, 2008). In Africa the tsetse flies inhabit the greenery around rivers, ponds and lakes additionally the disease has posed an immediate health & economic problem across Sub-Saharan Africa.
There are two types of the protozoan parasite disease that infect humans. Trypanosoma rhodesiense East African sleeping sickness is found in areas of eastern and southeastern Africa. Well over 95% of human infection takes place in Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, and Zambia. The primary reservoir for the infection is animals. Cattle are being looked at in the spread of the disease to uninfected areas where new outbreaks occur. Also wild animal are thought to be responsible scattered transmission to outdoor enthusiast and hunters visiting Africa’s publicized game parks. The Infection has found its way to international travelers but case are far and few. Very rarely dose the disease has found its way to the U.S., where one case per year, is diagnosed. Approximately cases of sleeping sickness imported into the U.S. have been from travelers who participated in safaris in East Africa ("CDC," 2013).
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is found in 24 countries in Western Africa, currently is responsible for 98% of reported sleeping sickness infections. T.b.gambiense is also transmitted by way of the painful bite of the tsetse fly and presents itself in two stages. The first of which is the hemolymphatic stage. This is when the parasite divides in the subcutaneous tissue, the blood and lymph. This stage shows signs of fever, headaches, joint aches, and itching (World Health Organization, 2014).
The second stage, more commonly known as the encephalitic stage is when the parasite has moved past the blood-brain barrier settled in the central nervous system. In the T. b. rhodesiense infection takes place within a few weeks. But T. b. gambiense can take months or years to develop. During this...

Find Another Essay On Human African Trypanosomaisis a.k.a. African Sleeping Sickness

Escaping to Discover the Truth Essay

884 words - 4 pages discovery and settlement from the north deep treks into the interior were prevented by sheer distance and disease that only locals were immune to during a time of little resistance. Three vicious diseases stand prevented the early exploration and exploitation of the African Continent: 1) Malaria, 2) Yellow Fever, and 3) Trypanosomiasis [sleeping sickness]. The mosquito borne diseases malaria and yellow fever that discouraged settlement or rather the

Devastation and Disease in Africa Essay

1910 words - 8 pages . Doctors and scientists will not understand how to treat and possibly cure the victim of the disease, a disease like African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness. Sleeping sickness is a disease carried by a parasite, Trypanosoma, that bites and infects cattle. It then spreads to people when a fly that bit the cattle that was infected, bites the people moving the cattle around (Hays 358). Realizing that the disease is transmitted through insects

Dehumanization of Enslaved Africans in Jamaica

2389 words - 10 pages number in the ship, which was so crowded that each had scarcely room to turn himself, almost suffocated us. This produced copious perspirations, so that the air soon became unfit for respiration, from a variety of loathsome smells, and brought on a sickness among the slaves, of which many died (" Slaves were seen as mere chattel destined to a lifetime of slavery. Even the option of suicide was stolen from the African slaves. The

The Protozoan Parasite Trypanosoma Brucei

751 words - 3 pages The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma Brucei is the caused of Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as HAT or sleeping sickness. The two subspecies of protozoa that caused the sleeping sickness are T.b gambiense and T.b rhodesiene. The T.b gambiense parasites responsible for more than 95% of the cases and with over 60 million people are at risk and more than 50,000 infected (1). The parasites are transmitting by the tsetse flies. These flies


664 words - 3 pages Population:Tanzania is no small country (compared to some) at around 40 million people (39,384,223 by July 2007), at a total fertility rate of 4.77 children born/woman). Due to various reasons, one major being AIDS, their life expectancy at birth is a discouraging 50.71 years.Health Problems:-HIV/Aids: 1.6 million people in Tanzania with HIV/AIDS-Other major health issues are malaria, sleeping sickness and tuberculosis-Doctors per capita 0.02

Motion Sickness

800 words - 3 pages genetically linked; both conditions affect the sensory systems. (3) Upon researching, an article stated "....some families suffer from motion sickness more than others, there is also a racial difference which was shown in a medical trial...the Asian-American children suffered the most sickness..." (4) How could motion sickness affect one race more than another? Or, do Asian-American children travel more than African American children? I think not

The Middle Passage

1017 words - 4 pages deck within the ship that had less than five feet of headroom. Throughout a large portion of the deck, sleeping shelves where cut that limited amount of headroom and lack of standing headroom was the least of slave's problems. With 300 and 400 people packed in a tiny area, little ventilation and, in some cases, not even enough space to place buckets for human waste. Disease was prevalent. The closeness of the place, and the heat of the climate

Pathogenic Yeast: Cryptococcus Neoformans

1433 words - 6 pages , Cryptococcus neoformans upregulates its CIG1 gene, which encodes a mannoprotein, Cig1, the pathogen uses to uptake iron. Cig1 binds to heme and traffics it to the membrane where it is endocytosed. The endocytosed heme is further processed in the fungal vacuole. Loss of Cig1 has been show to result in delayed growth of Cryptococcus neoformans [2]. Another pathogen that has been shown to scavenge for heme is African trypanosome. Sleeping sickness, also

African Union

818 words - 4 pages The AU consists of many departments one or which is human resources, science, and technology. The commissioner of human resources, science and technology is Dr. Martial De-Paul Ikounga (Biography of the Commissioner | African Union). Dr. Martial De-Paul Ikounga is a member of the Congolese National Assembly and the chairman of the Education, Culture, Science and Technology Commission (Global Preparatory Meeting ). He has also served in many

African American Culture

977 words - 4 pages African American Culture Culture is not a fixed phenomenon, nor is it the same in all places or to all people. It is relative to time, place, and particular people. Learning about other people can help us to understand ourselves and to be better world citizens. One of the most common ways of studying culture is to focus on the differences within and among cultures. Although their specifics may vary form one culture to another

African Culture

2573 words - 11 pages human rights. These aspects may be contemporary factors that continue to shape the face of today’s culture. Modern culture seeks to create a balance between development and sustainability. These issues did not exist in the African diaspora cultural views (Echemeta, 16). This paper underscores the need to assess the impact of globalization and the rise of international terrorism. Today’s cultural perspectives focus on meeting the objectives of

Similar Essays

Wesr African Fable: Kweku Anansi A.K.A Ananse The Spider

802 words - 4 pages A fable is a short story, typically with animals as characters, which conveys a moral. In many countries, they are used to teach lessons. In West Africa, they serve as a means of communication and are passed down from generation to generation. One of the most popular West African fable characters is Kweku Anansi. Ananse stories, as they have come to be known, have been told for thousands of years but became popularized in Ashanti, Ghana. Ananse

Human Papillomavirus In African American Females Essay

2371 words - 10 pages Numerous studies have been conducted on various facets of human papillomavirus (HPV) in African-American females. These include focusing on the etiology of HPV, predicting its occurrence, describing the health status of those affected, and controlling its occurrence. Per contra, the number of African-American women infected with HPV is substantially higher than other populations such as Caucasians, American Indian/ Alaska Natives, and Asian

A Large Flaw In Human Nature (Essay Comparing/Contrasting Treatment Of Native Americans And African Americans By The White People)

804 words - 3 pages one person disagreed, would that person stand up against their government, friends, or family? Most likely not. Two of the most gruesome, horrifying examples of this human flaw of being easily persuaded seem to fit hand in hand: United States enslavement of Africans and future African Americans, and the Holocaust. Though these two events are not the same, they have many distinct shared characteristics. Both began the same way. Someone came up with

Assess The Degree To Which African Americans Were Denied Civil And Human Rights In The Southern States Of The Usa In The Decades Leading Up To The 1950s

1000 words - 4 pages In the decades leading up to the 1950's, African American people were denied basic human rights as they were seen to be "lower" and "inferior" human beings. This racial discrimination can be traced back to the days of slavery in the 1600's right up to today in the 21st Century. It has been only in the last 50-60 years that African Americans have been treated as equals. The prime root of this conduct can be seen from the beginning of