Human Cosmetic Surgery and Prosthetic Device Implants
The human body is a collection of remarkable biological mechanisms that integrates features that can not be duplicated exactly. However, many modern prosthetic devices can add years to an individual's life, improve physical comfort and function, or in the case of aesthetic implants, improve emotional health. There are many types of implants that server a variety of functions that offer risks and benefits.
Implants can server many purposes. Cosmetic surgery has variety prosthesis to select from, not only to change the appearance of a feature for aesthetic reasons, but also to correct disfiguring from trauma or disease. Numerous implants are available to enhance physical appearance through cosmetic surgery. Breast implants is one of the most common cosmetic surgery procedures, and is considered extremely useful for reconstruction for breast cancer victims. Aesthetic surgery can improve ones sexual relations due to increase self-confidence. However, cosmetic surgery has also altered the function of genitalia. Implants may also improve sexual function. Although many drugs are available to treat male impotency, surgical penile implantation is an option. An inflatable implant allows the patient to "pump up" the penis before intercourse. Implant devices have also been used in Urology, although with today's medical advancement, transplantation is now an option. Implants are used for numerous medicinal purposes form pregnancy prevention, vision, hearing, voice or neurological purposes
(Babbush, 112-118). Some other common implantation procedures are prosthetic cardiac valves, hip and knee implants, and dental implants.
Heart valve prosthesis replaces diseased heart valves. There are four valves of the heart: 1) the aortic valve, 2) the mitral valve, 3) the bicuspid valve, 4) the pulmonary valve. These valves are designed to control the direction of blood flow through the heart. The opening and closing of these valves produce the heart beat sounds. When the heart beats, the valves close to keep the blood form flowing backwards. The heart beats more than one hundred thousand times per day. The valves must be able to flex, stretch and hold back pressure hundreds of million times in an average lifetime. The mitral and aortic valves are on the left side of the heart. These are most commonly affected by aging because the pressure is higher on this side. The right heart valves can be damaged by infection or lung disease. Regardless of the valve damage, as they harden or weaken they do not open properly and therefore blood flow may be blocked. Heart valve conditions may also be congenital. Diseases such as rheumatic fever or bacterial infections may also scar or destroy the valves. Heart valve diseases fall into two categories, stenosis and incompetence. The stenotic heart valve prevents full opening of the valve because of the stiffened valve tissue, therefore the heart works harder to...