This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Human Development: Basic Trust Vs. Basic Mistrust (Birth To 18 Months)

2274 words - 9 pages

Stage 1: Basic Trust vs. Basic Mistrust (Birth to 18 Months)
In stage one of Erickson’s theory, the first eighteen months of life is centered on the development of trust (Zaslow & Kirst-Ashman, 2007); that is, the infant must learn to trust and depend on others for food and care. According to Erikson (1985), the most important event of this stage is feeding. The infant will either develop trust if her caregiver’s presence and feedings are stable and predictable, or develop a sense of mistrust if they are not. As such, Erikson (1985) concluded that hope becomes the overarching theme of this stage with “trust born of care” (pg. 250) and highlighted the adverse effects of improper ratio of trust vs. mistrust throughout one’s life cycle.
Due to Benjamin’s unusual deformity at birth, his first encounter in life was met with rejection, hatred, and abandonment – from the doctor who advised Button’s mother that there were “places for unwanted babies” (2008), to the death of his mother and finally, his father who attempted to throw Benjamin in the river but instead abandoned him on the doorsteps of a nursing home. Although Bowlby indicated that early parental loss “increased the likelihood of and a greater vulnerability to future adversity” (as cited in Maier & Lackman, 2000, para. 2), Benjamin was fortunately discovered and rescued by Queenie, an African American woman who worked at the nursing home. Unable to have a child of her own, Queenie looked past his deformity and loved him instantly saying, “You as ugly as an old pot, but you still a child of God” (2008). Although Benjamin showed all the deformities of an eighty-year-old man, he formed a trusting bond with Queenie because of her enduring presence and predictable nourishment [feeding]. Therefore, Erikson’s theme of hope (1985) in Benjamin’s first stage of life was fulfilled. Moreover, Queenie’s stable presence and predictable nourishment [feeding] allowed Benjamin to confidently progress to the next developmental stage of life – autonomy vs. shame and doubt.
Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (18 Months to 3 Years)
During the second stage of life, the overarching psychosocial crisis is autonomy vs. shame and doubt (Erikson, 1985). This is the period when toddlers learn the essential strengths of self-will and self-control through accomplishing basic tasks independently. As such, toddlers begin to develop finer motor skills and assert their autonomy to walk, talk, and feed themselves including the chief task of this stage – toilet training. Toddlers are given many opportunities to build self-esteem and autonomy as they gain greater control over their bodies and successfully accomplish tasks on their own. However, if they are “constantly downtrodden, restricted, or punished” (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2007, pg. 258) while learning important skills and notably during toilet training, toddlers will end up feeling ashamed and doubtful of their capabilities, resulting in low...

Find Another Essay On Human Development: Basic Trust vs. Basic Mistrust (Birth to 18 Months)

Is literacy a basic human right?

905 words - 4 pages that enable one to address the challenges one can face in life, and represents an essential step in basic education, which is an indispensable means for effective participation in the society, and thus, is essential for an individual to live with dignity, and can as a result be seen as a crucial human right.In order to fully understand the necessity of literacy in everyday life we must consider examples of how it interferes with the individual's

Welform Reform and Basic Human Needs

1223 words - 5 pages Welfare is a great incentive program to help the ones in need, to maintain basic human needs. Over time people have started to misuse the system. The program is created for the ones who worked really hard or can't work because of any physical or mental challenge. Many Americans on Welfare today, don't want to work, and collect free money from the government. The homeless that are on the streets deserve it more than anyone. Our country is aware

Basic Information about the sun         Since the birth of mankind,

1839 words - 7 pages Basic Information about the sun Since the birth of mankind, the Earth has been lit by the vibrant light of our closest star, The Sun. The sun, which is roughly 1 au from the earth, is a giant ball of burning gases, without much solid. The Sun was "born" approximately 5 billion years ago, as it began it's formation in a huge cloud of gases. As the materials condensed, high temperatures and great pressures built up at the center. These

Basic Language Skills and Language Acquisition and Development

1308 words - 6 pages think still requires ongoing work for me. I think this is mainly because the reasons for writing are substantially different and have evolved over time. In my early stages of language acquisition and development, writing was quite basic, but still difficult for that level of personal human development that I was under-going. However, now as a student and professional, the need to acquire further skills as an academic in writing and as a

Basic Human Right of People with Down Syndrome

1347 words - 6 pages People with Down syndrome have been mistreated, terminated as a foetus, and denied basic human rights such as education and medical treatment (Smith, 2011). Why are people with Down syndrome treated differently from the rest of society? This may be due to the lack of understanding and respect given to them, therefore creating a stereotype against Down syndrome. This essay will discuss the challenges faced by people with Down syndrome, as well as

Deontological ethics is too rigid in its emphasis on duties, utilitarian ethics too keen to override basic human rights

1047 words - 4 pages Deontological ethics is too rigid in its emphasis on duties, utilitarianethics too keen to override basic human rights.Deontology and utilitarianism are both types of ethics referring to how onereacts in a certain situation. Deontology is based on following a set of duties andsticking to these duties no matter what the consequences whereas utilitarianism isbased on choosing the best outcome over a short term and long term even if it

Examining the Basic Principles of the Belmont Report in Relevance to the Clinical Trial Involving Human Subject, Jesse Gelsinger. Sara Schultze BTC6

1284 words - 5 pages In the United States, the basis for ethical protection for human research subjects in clinical research trials are outlined by the Belmont Report developed in the late 1970’s. This document, published by the Nation Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, highlights three important basic principles that are to be considered when any clinical trial will involve human research subjects

: Should freedom of movement outside the home-country be accepted as the basic human right?

1767 words - 8 pages asylum versus an exotic cultural experience). The author will survey the main theories and studies behind freedom of movement and as well as raise the ethical issue on if migration restrictions violate basic human rights. 2. Should freedom of movement across borders be considered as human basic right One of the most significant questions for stable developed democratic countries is if they do have the strict moral obligations to admit

: the basic functions of Human Resource Management: planning and forecasting human resource requirements, recruitment and selection, appraisal, evaluation and employee motivation. UOP: MGT 431

1799 words - 7 pages improving the physical work environment. The relationships between successful business and Human Resource Management are examined as well as how Human Resource Management strategies can be incorporated into business strategies to improve profit.The history of the development of human resource management can be traced back to the early 1900s. Human resource managers¡¦ original function was to basically manage the relationship between

History, Basic Teachings, Writings, Symbols, and Practices of Judaism: Determine the historical development of Judaism - Describe the major tenets of Judaism

2250 words - 9 pages basic laws which every society needs to enforce". (http://judaism.about.com/od/shavuot/a/shavuot_torah.htm ). The purpose of this story is to explain the basic teachings and purpose of hop and why the Ten Commandments became the law of God there will not be chaos throughout the World.Question: Briefly examine the development of ideas and values that led to the formation of monotheism.Response: "Many 19th century scholars held that monotheism

Freedom and privacy on the Internet can be realised on basic principles of human rights and good governance

933 words - 4 pages individuals, which could be used as a means of censorship. The emerging scenario highlights the need for applying an approach similar to that applied in the domain of human rights. The fact of difference between the virtual and the physical should not be a hindrance to recognising the internet as a means to further the objectives and interests of the physical, tangible world of individuals. Hence the protection of privacy and freedom embedded in the

Similar Essays

Basic Concepts Of Human Interaction Essay

632 words - 3 pages Social cognition, attitude, and self are the basic concepts of human interaction (Sadrust, 2011, ¶ 1). Social cognition deals with first impression, schemas, stereotypes, and prejudice (Sadrust, 2011, ¶ 1). Attitude deals with persuasion and cognition dissonance (Sadrust, 2011, ¶ 1). Self deals with self-concepts, self-esteem, self-consistency, and self-presentation (Sadrust, 2011, ¶ 1). Each one of these impacts how humans interact with one

Human Development (Conception Birth) Essay

955 words - 4 pages Human development can be described as the way a human body forms as the process of life begins. Along this process different kinds of mutations and diseases can occur, some may be natural and others self-afflicted (Sigelman & Rider). The area of human development I am focusing on is the time between conception and birth of a fetus, this is especially important because it is the making of a life (Sigelman & Rider). This time frame of nine months

Basic Normal Stages Of Child Development

5115 words - 20 pages Basic Normal Stages of Child Development This section is a brief overview of child development looking at children from birth to the age of five. It is easiest show this information as part of a table as it enables us to compare different parts of a child’s development along side each other. It is also very important to realise that the ages and time frames shown in the table have been taken from the average ages and

Basic Language Skills For Acquisition And Development

2004 words - 8 pages This paper explores the place and importance of the basic language skills for acquisition and development. These language skills are: listening, speaking, reading and writing. To accomplish this, a literature review was conducted. Subsequently, this paper will also present the importance of each skill towards language acquisition and it's development. Lastly, I shall demonstrate my personal reflection and experience on how I have used