Human Development Index. Essay

1373 words - 5 pages

human development index"the basic purpose of development is to enlarge people's choices. In principle, these choices can change over time .people often value achievements that donot show up at all or not ultimately in income or growth figures:greater access to knowledge, better nutrition and health services, moer secure livelihoods, security against crime and physical violences, satisfying leisure hours ,political and cultural freedoms and sense of participation in community activities. the objective of development is to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long,healthy and creative lives"-mahbub ul haqthe issue is not to easy to resolve.we shall have intuitive notion of development.when we speak of a developed society we picture in our minds a society in which people are well fed and well clothed,possess access to a variety of commodities, have the luxury of some leisure and entertainment,and live in ahealthy environment.we think of a society free of violent dicrimination,with tolerable levels of equality,where the sick recieve proper medical attention and people donot have to sleep on sidewalks.in short most of us would insist that a minimal requirement for a developed nation is that physical quality of life be high,and so uniformly,rather than being restricted to an ingrously affluent minority.of course the notion of a good society goes further .we might stress political rights and freedoms,intellectuals and cultural development, stability of the familiy, a low crime rate and so on. however a high and equally accesible level of material well being is probably a prerequisite for most other kinds of advancement, quite apart from being a worthy goal in itself.low per capita income is an important feature of economic underdevelopment-perhaps the most important feature and there is little doubt that the distribution of income accross the world,s nation is extra ordinariily skewed.the disparities are enormous and no amount of fine tuning in measurement methods can get rid of the stark inequalities that we live with. nevertheless , both for a better understanding of the degree of international variation that we are talking about.income is distributed unequally in al countries and especially so in the developing countries.we also noticed a fair degree of variation in inequality across countries : middle income countries have significantly higher inequality. this variation suggests that excessive reliance on GNP per capita as a reliable indicator of overall development might be dangerous.a relatively prosperous country may fare poorly on some of the common sense indicators of development such as life expectancy,gender equality, literacy levels, low mortality rates etc.in part, this is because income is distributed unequally ,but other features may be at work as well. likewise a country that promotes poular science and health education programs might be a welcome outliner in the health category even if income may be low or poorly...

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