Human Genome Project
The Human Genome Project is an international project basically
sponsored by the U.S Government. It started in October 1990 with an
aim to sequence the entire human genome. The complete set of
information present in the form of the genes in an organism forms its
genome. Each human being has 23 pairs of chromosomes having DNA double
helix in each. The Human Genome Project is a worldwide research effort
with the goal of analyzing the structure of human DNA and determining
the location of the estimated 100,000 human genes. In parallel with
this effort, the DNA of a set of model organisms will be studied to
provide the comparative information necessary for understanding the
functioning of the human genome.
The Human Genome Project has a lot of goals. Firstly its main goal is
to identify all the 100,000 genes in human DNA. Secondly to determine
the sequence of three billion chemical base pairs that make up the
human genome, all this information has to be stored in a database.
Tools for data analysis have to be developed. Related technologies
have to be transferred to the private sector. Due to the ethical,
legal, and social issues, which may arise from the project, it has to
be addressed. An important feature of this project is the federal
government's long-standing dedication to transfer the technology to
private sector by licensing them, awarding grants for innovative
research and earning multi-billion U. S dollars that could later be
used for medical researchers. To help achieve these goals, researchers
also are studying the genetic makeup of several nonhuman organisms.
These include the common human gut bacterium Escherichia coli, the
fruit fly, and the laboratory mouse.
The process for the sequencing of the Human Genome is long and
complicated. At first a collection of blood and sperm samples from
anonymous donors which are then combined into a mixture. The...