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Human Nature According To Psychoanalysis And The Humanistic Psychology

1649 words - 7 pages

Human Nature According to Psychoanalysis and the Humanistic Psychology As Carl Jung stated “ As far as we can discern, the sole purpose of
human existence is to kindle a light of meaning in the darkness of
mere being”. Reflecting on what it is to be a person raises profound
questions which have been very much the concern of two major
psychological perspectives: the psychoanalysis and the humanistic
psychology. Some of this questions are: Why do we act and feel in the
way we do, how far are we open or fixed to change, if we can change
aspects of who we are how we can do it or how can we make sense in the
subjective worlds in which we exist. As we will see both perspectives
will approach these matters and will focus on the subjectivity,
exploring aspects of our inner life.

The major contributors to these perspectives are Sigmund Freud who
created psychotherapy and psychodynamics at the start of the 20th
century, and inside the humanistic perspective, Carl Rogers who
developed the person centred therapy during the 1960’s as a cultural
emphasis on emancipation from tradition and exploration of new ideas
and attitudes.

One problem in comparing these two approaches lays in the fact that
they make rather different kinds of contribution to counselling and
they can not be compare like with like. However both perspectives
offer different models of the person and different ways of bringing
about personal change, so they do present some interesting contrasts
that relate to the person’s autonomy, the nature of subjectivity and
whether and how people can change.

Both approaches focus on subjectivity and the inner world of the
experiences in live, however psychodynamics are focused on the impact
of the unconscious mind on meanings, motivations, behaviours and
conscious experiences. They refer to inner conflicts (especially
between the different aspects of the psyche – id, ego and superego)
and the defensive processes used unconsciously to defend against the
anxiety these conflicts creates, including repression, sublimation,
projection and reaction formation. The aim of psychoanalytic
psychotherapy is to release repressed unconscious material by bringing
it into consciousness. The person centred approach primary focus on
the significance of a person’s conscious feelings and thoughts while
not entirely rejecting the relevance of unconscious feelings. Thus
Rogers says that each person lives essentially in her own particular
and subjective world. . While he accepts that a person will not be
conscious of all aspects of her subjective world he believes...

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