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Human Nervous System. Essay

1182 words - 5 pages

In the central nervous system, the brain and the spinal cord are the two main parts. The brain and spinal cord are protected by bone. The skull encloses the brain, and the vertebrae of the spinal column surround the spinal cord. The brain and spinal cord are also covered and protected by 3 tough membranes called menings. The cerebrospinal fluid cushions the brain and spinal column. The brain contains four ventricles filled with the fluid; the central canal is filled around spinal column.The brain has three major parts, cerebellum, cerebrum, and the medulla. Also includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and pons. The thalamus is the relay center of brain and spinal column (also in pain perception). The hypothalamus controls body temperature, blood pressure, sleep, and emotions (also is involved and controls the endocrine system). Pons is a relay system, which links spinal column and major parts. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. It is divided from front to back into the right and left cerebral hemispheres. Nerve fibers pass from one to another, so the left side of your brain controls the right side of your body, and the right side controls the left side, they intersect somewhere in spinal cord. The outer most layer of the brain is the cerebral cortex consisting of gray matter. The surface of the brain has many folds called convolutions, this increases the surface area. The cerebral cortex performs 3 major functions, sensory, motor, and associative. The sensory receives and interprets impulses from sensory organs. The motors initiate impulses responsible for voluntary movement. Associative is responsible for memory, learning, and thought. Beneath the gray matter is an inner area called white matter. White matter consists of myelinated nerve fibers, and connects each hemisphere and other parts of the nervous system. The cerebellum is located below the rear part of the cerebrum. It is also divided into 2 hemispheres with gray and white matter. It coordinates and controls all voluntary and some involuntary movement. It also helps to maintain balance or equilibrium. The medulla controls all involuntary activities. It consists of nerve fibers connecting brain and spinal cord. The outer layer is white matter and the inner layer is gray matter.The spinal cord extends from base of the brain. The cross section of the cord, it contains inner H-shaped rejoin of gray matter surrounded by white matter. The gray matter is associative neurons and cell bodies of motor neurons. The spinal canal in the center of vertebrae is filled with cerebrospinal fluid. It has two functions; it connects nerves of peripheral nervous system. Impulses are sent from sensory neurons to associative neurons in the spinal cord up to the brain. Impulses are then sent back from the brain, down to the spinal cord to motor neurons. It also controls certain reflexes that do not involve the brain.The peripheral nervous system includes all neurons and nerve fibers outside brain and...

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