The archeology is the scientific study of past human culture and behavior, from the origins of humans to the present. The archaeology studies past human behavior through the examination of material remains of previous human societies. These remains include the fossils of humans, food remains, the ruins of buildings, and human artifacts items such as tools, pottery, and jewelry.
The Origin of Species presents us with a theory of natural selection. This theory is his attempt at an explanation on how the world and its species came to be the way that we know them now. Through the effects of man and the effects of nature, species have had a trial and error experiment ongoing. It is through these trials that the natural world has developed beneficial anomalies that at times seem too great to be the work of chance. When an animal gains a genetic edge over its competitors, be they of the same species or of another genus altogether, the animal has increased its chance of either procreation or adaptation. When this animal has this beneficial variance, the advantage becomes his and because of this, the trait is then passed on to the animal’s offspring. The theory of natural selection is not limited to inheritable and beneficial variations of a species. It also relies a great deal on the population growth and death of a species. For a species to continue to exist it must make sure of a few things. It must first produce more offspring than survive. If this is not done then the species is obviously going to die off. It is also important for the species to propagate at such a rate as to allow for variance.
It can be said that a firm grounding in Evolutionary Theory is necessary to any attempt at the study of Human Evolution. While Feder and Park do address Evolutionary Theory in their text (Human Antiquity 2007), their treatment is inadequate. It is grossly oversimplified, and in that simplification many important details, necessary for understanding, are glossed over or entirely left out. They also neglect to explicitly define the species concept they choose to use. They make several false statements and are often misleading in their attempts to explain organism phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary processes.
A well defined species concept is a very necessary beginning to any discussion of evolution. Because our classifications of organisms are essentially arbitrary, it is vital to define the rules by which inclusion and exclusion in a category are decided upon. It appears that Feder and Park are using a strict biological species concept. They state, “…animal species, by definition, can only reproduce within that species…” They mention plant hybridization, but neglect to mention or explain the occurrence of animal hybridization and what that means according to the biological species concept. According to the current definition of biological species, in order for two populations to be considered different species they must be reproductively...