Human Reproduction Should Not Be Controlled

1385 words - 6 pages

Human Reproduction Should Not be Controlled

Humans have many ways in which to manage their own reproduction. They
can choose to prevent or assist fertilisation f an egg by a sperm. (1)

The artificial control of the menstrual cycle in females has two main

Firstly as a contraceptive device by preventing ovulation and secondly
as a fertility device by stimulating ovulation. (2)

All human societies have at one time or another developed mechanisms
of birth control. The impact of too many children on the family,
tribe, or population has led to methods as diverse as infanticide and
the sophisticated pharmacology of the contraception. (4)

Contraception refers to the use of methods ort devices that prevent
conception. There are many contraceptive methods available including
physical barriers (such as condoms) that prevent egg and sperm ever
meeting. The most effective methods involve chemical interference in
the normal female cycle so that egg production is inhibited. (1)

Hormonal methods of birth control appear in many different forms and
are extremely popular. These include oral contraceptives, injections
and implants skin patches.

Combined oral contraceptives (Ocs)

Hormones direct the process of ovulation. Oestrogen and progesterone
are 2 hormones that direct many of the processes surrounding the
menstrual cycle. Artificial analogues of these have proven an
efficient form of birth control. To prevent pregnancy a woman takes a
pill daily which contains both these hormones. This is the combination
pill or simply “the pill”. The oestrogen works by preventing an egg of
being released from the ovaries most of the time. Both the oestrogen
and progesterone make the uterus a hostile environment for an embryo
by causing a thinning of the uterus lining. (3)

Pros and cons of hormonal contraception

High reliability is a major advantage of hormonal contraception. The
risk of accidental pregnancy is less than 3 %. The hormones make for
lighter and more regular menstrual periods, and reduce the cramps
associated with periods. They also lower the statistical risk of tubal
pregnancy, pelvic infections and ovarian and endometrial cancer. Ocs
gives more sexual freedom and also acne improvements. (6)

However there are many disadvantages and complications of Ocs

Common side effects. Oestrogen and progesterone have different side
effects. Symptoms of serious problems include severe abdominal pain,
chest pain, unusual headaches, visual disturbances or severe pain or
swelling in the legs.

Effects on heart and circulation. Osc pose some serious risks when
they first were introduced and oestrogen and progestin levels were
high. Such complications include blood cloths, heart attack,...

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