In this paper I will argue that the inclusion of Human Security in the UN mandate does not necessarily make UN Missions more successful. In order to do this, I have considered two UN Missions in the Congo. I have compared the two interventions that the UN had to make in Congo, first in 1960 when the Human Security framework did not exist and later in the period after 1997-2006 when Human Security became an important consideration. I have also analyzed the role of other states that were involved in the Congo during the two interventions in the context of Realism and assessed if the generalizations contained therein were applicable in this situation.
II. What is “Human Security”
Human Security means the security of people – their physical safety, their economic and social well-being, respect for their dignity and worth as human beings, and the protection of their human rights and fundamental freedoms. (2.21 Responsibility to Protect)
Human Security is a policy framework that addresses threats to governments and people. Threats to human security vary largely, so the United Nations conducts an assessment of human insecurities. According to the UNOCHA (2014: 1) website, the UN can invoke the Human Security framework if the livelihood, dignity and universal freedom of people in a country are seriously threatened. Under the framework, the UN will then help to provide solutions that are specific to the needs of the country. Finding out the main causes of the situation, preventing a repeat of such incidents in the future and the enablement of proper governance and protection of society will also be undertaken by the UN.
The general goals of the Human Security Unit established by the UN are to highlight the importance of Human Security for all, to respond to different situations, to develop the framework and tools to respond to human insecurities, and to foster innovative initiatives to advance human security (UNOCHA 2014: 1).
III. United Nations’ mission in Congo 1960-1964
On the 30th of June 1960, Congo received independence from Belgium. Five days later, there was civil mutiny and a military unrest and then foreign interventions (Gibs 2000; 363). The Belgian government intervened to protect Belgians in Congo, by sending paratroopers to the province of Katanga. This created conflict between the Congolese and Belgians. The province of Katanga, Congo’s most mineral rich province was declared independent on the next day. The Prime Minister and President of Congo immediately asked for help from the United Nations “requesting UN military assistance and also declaring that Belgium had committed aggression against the Congo” (Gibs 2000; 363).
The Security Council had a meeting the following day and passed a resolution demanding that the Belgians remove their troops from Congo. The resolution also demanded that law and order be maintained and that the new independent government in Congo be legitimized. The United Nations Force in Congo was...