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Human Sight Essay

1742 words - 7 pages

The purpose of this research project is to investigate and report researched information on ophthalmology. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica "the eye is the organ through which persons acquire knowledge of their environment by virtue of the light reflected from, or emitted by, the objects within the environment; it is the photo receptor organ that, together with other types of receptors, allows the organism react to and to understand the world around it."1 First, human sight will be explained, including the structure of the human eye and the entire process of how we see from when light comes towards our eyes until and including the brain's interpretation. Second, defects of the eye and corrective procedures that include farsightedness, nearsightedness, astigmatism, LASIK surgery and corrective lenses will be discussed. Also, discussion of optical equipment used to examine, care for and the corrective treatment of eyes will be included. Third, the effects of a variety of drugs, prescribed, legal and illegal, on the human eye and eyesight will be discussed.The process of human sight is complex. Light enters through the clear covering of the eye called the cornea. It then passes through the adjustable opening in the eye called the iris. The lens, which is soft and flexible, is supposed to focus the image of the object onto the retina. The retina is like the "movie screen" of the eye. Images formed on the retina should cause nerves to send signals along the optic nerve to be "seen" by the mind.2The next step is how the brain interprets human sight. Think of the optic nerve as the message sender in the back of your eye. The rods and cones of the retina change the colors and shapes you see into millions of nerve messages. Then, the optic nerve carries those messages from the eye to the brain. The optic nerve serves as a fast transmitter connecting the eye to the brain. When you see an image your eye transports what you are seeing so the brain can translate that report into an object such as a cat, or an apple, etc.3Many defects can occur with human sight. Farsightedness is when you see things clearly far away but are unable to see things clearly close up. Corrective lenses includes eyeglasses with convex lenses, which are thicker in the center and thinner on the edges, to bend light to merge forward in the eye to reach the retina. Contact lenses offer many options, such as soft lenses and rigid gas-permeable (RGP) lenses, which mold to the shape of the lens. Laser surgery is effective for many people with farsightedness, but the long term effects of these new procedures are still under study. Laser surgery, which still may result in the need for reading glasses is generally not recommended for people under eighteen years old and has a risk of side effects such as increased sensitivity to glare, seeing halos around lights, poor vision, dry eye. Laser options include LASIK which is a procedure in which a surgeon slices a flap into the cornea and a...

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