Hume, Descartes, And Nietzsche's Views On Immortality

1290 words - 6 pages

Immortality is one of mankind’s major apprehensions, and even though it has been mainly restricted to religious customs. People have different opinions about immortality. Everybody defines immortality differently. For some people it is the survival of the astral body resembling the physical body, for others the immortality of the immaterial soul and lastly the resurrection of the body. Basic definition of immortality is the unknown continuation of a person’s existence, even after death. Immortality primarily referred to soul as it like it does not die when the human body dies, but since they both well connected together, when the body dies, soul dies too; therefore, immortality does not ...view middle of the document...

First, He argues about the point or purpose of punishment in a future state. He says in this life people already assume that punishment must not only be merited, it must also attain some applicable social end or value. When we are apart from this world these goals are taken away and punishment becomes meaninglessly vindictive. The consequence of this is that punishment without any further point or purpose is mere vengeance that lacks any accurate explanation. Second, Hume asks on what basis God determines the extent of our merit and demerit. Among human beings the standard of merit and demerit depends on our moral feelings and our sense of pleasure and pain. Third, the principle of eternal damnation clearly involves extreme punishment even for the worst of crimes. Lastly, he talks about split between Heaven and Hell. He states: “Heaven and hell suppose two distinct species of men, the good and the bad. But the greatest part of mankind float between vice and virtue”(Hume, 93)
Lastly, for the physical ones he says: “Where any two objects are so closely connected, that all alterations, which we have ever seen in the one, are attended with proportionable alterations in the other; we ought to conclude, by all rules of analogy, that, when there are still greater alterations produced in the former, and it is totally dissolved, there follows a total dissolution of the latter.”(Hume, 95) With that he is saying that soul and body is very closely connected. For instance, he gives some examples related to the inseparability of body and soul. When we sleep, how our body and soul shuts off or when we get older how our body and soul gets so weak and sluggish.
In addition to Hume, Nietzsche also claims immortality does not exist. He claims that God does not exist. That is why he thinks that immortality cannot exist when there is no perfect creature on earth. He states “That everyone as an ‘immortal soul’ has equal rank with everyone else, that in the totality of living beings the ‘salvation’ of every single individual may claim eternal significance . . . Christianity owes its triumph to this miserable flattery of personal vanity: it was precisely all the failures, all the rebellious-minded, all the less-favored, the whole scum and refuse of humanity who were thus won over to it. The ‘salvation of the soul’—in plain language: ‘the world revolves around me.’” (Nietzsche, 224)
However, Descartes claims that immortality does exist. He says that: “Human soul does not die with the body, and that God exists, certainly no unbelievers seem capable of being persuaded of any religion or even of almost any moral virtue, until these two are first proven to them by natural reason.”(Descartes, 466) Descartes is...

Find Another Essay On Hume, Descartes, and Nietzsche's Views on Immortality

The Question of Free Will: Descartes, Hume, and Nietzsche

2474 words - 10 pages The power of acting without necessity and acting on one’s own discretions, free will still enamors debates today, as it did in the past with philosophers Nietzsche, Descartes, and Hume. There are two strong opposing views on the topic, one being determinism and the other “free will”. Determinism, or the belief a person lacks free will and all events including human actions are determined by forces outside the will of an individual contrasts

Descartes' Views on the Topic of Philosophy of Mind

1134 words - 5 pages Descartes' Views on the Topic of Philosophy of Mind Descartes has indeeed made some notable contributions towards the philosophy of mind. It is the aim of this essay to discuss these contributions. Descartes is well known for being an avid dualist. This is the view that the mind and body are understood to be seperate and distinct from each other, but in some way causally connected. Descartes was no exception and

Descartes's evil demon hypothesis, descartes and galileo's distinction between appearance and reality; Nietzsche's "History of an Error"

737 words - 3 pages perspectivism. There is no actual reality, coinciding with Cartesian evil demon hypothesis in that both views share the belief that the world is not a uniform thing to all. The "real world" is a fallacy.Perhaps I have a simpler and less mature view of the world than Nietzsche and Descartes, but I personally don't see an issue as far as whether or not there is an external real world. I live in the world. I see it and interact with it every day of my

Morality. Rene Descartes, Thomas Hobbes and David Hume were all after the truth

608 words - 2 pages everything on experience. Science has some weight in this, for example, going back to Mathematics. Hume would have to experience one plus one equals two to believe it? That is just a little insane. Experience does help, in many cases, but it cannot apply to all.Rene Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, and David Hume all have excellent ideas. Combining them all together would create an awesome way of reasoning and gaining truth and certain knowledge.

David Hume on Sentiments and Reason

1549 words - 6 pages only for himself, remain within him. “One thing can always be a reason, why another is desired. Something must be desirable on its own account, and because of its immediate accord or agreement with human sentiment and affection” (87)       In conclusion, I believe that Hume thinks that reason, while not completely useless, is not the driving force of moral motivation. Reasons are a means to sentiments, which in turn are

Locke and Hume on Inequalities of Distribution

1206 words - 5 pages industrious than others have, or because they are more talented at doing useful things with the land and all that nature has given to us. Hume opens with the following “… justice is useful to society, and consequently that part of its merits, at least, must arise from that consideration, it would be a superfluous undertaking to prove. That public utility is the sole origin of justice, and that reflections on the beneficial consequences of this

Contrasting Kand and Hume on Morality

1852 words - 8 pages Morality is central to all rational beings, whereby a moral action is one determined by reason, rather than our personal desires as suggested by Kant (1785) in contrast to Hume. (1738). Furthermore, Kant suggests that an action is moral only on account of its being reasoned, therefore the moral worth of an action is determined by its motives and not by its consequences. Exploring the works of Hume (1738) and Kant(1785) on morality and ethics, we

Descartes and Hume

4272 words - 17 pages 1 Epistemología Descartes y Hume representan los extremos racionalista y empirista, respectivamente, de la epistemología moderna. Sus únicos puntos de coincidencia son precisamente las características comunes a toda la epistemología moderna, y que diferencian esta de las epistemologías antigua y medieval, ambas predominantemente realistas. Estas características son el idealismo epistemol&oacute

Socrates And Descartes On Dual

678 words - 3 pages Socrates and Descartes on Dualism Dualism means the complete separation of the mental world and the physical world. In philosophy, it is the theory that the universe is explicable only as a whole composed of two distinct and mutually exclusive factors: the mind and the body. Socrates and Plato are called dualists because they think that mind and body are separate and distinct substances. Mind is conscious and non-spatial and body is spatial

Descartes on the Mind and Body

834 words - 4 pages we cannot claim that Descartes is correct in his theory of substances. Works Cited Descartes, Rene. Meditations of First Philosophy with Selections firm the Objections and Replies. 1986. Reprint. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Aquinas, Thomas. The Treatise on Human Nature. Indianapolis: Hacett Publishing Company, 2002.

Aristotle, Rousseau and Descartes on Technology

1646 words - 7 pages While it is relatively easy to confuse the ideas of Aristotle, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and René Descartes, ancient philosophy, eighteenth century politics, and mathematics all appear to be considerably disconnected subjects. Associated with these divisions are three different opinions on a common subject matter: technology. It appears that Rousseau directly opposes technology, Aristotle’s opinion rests in the middle but also shares similarities

Similar Essays

Essays On Suicide And The Immortality Of The Soul: The Complete 1783 Edition David Hume

10622 words - 42 pages Essays on Suicide and the Immortality of the Soul: The Complete 1783 Edition David Hume 2/10/96Copyright 1995, James Fieser ( See end note for details on copyright and editing conventions. This is a working draft; please report errors.1Links to Sections: Essay I: On Suicide [Not assigned] Essay II: On the Immortality of the SoulMetaphysical Arguments [Required]Moral Arguments [Optional]Physical Arguments

An Essay With Personal Opinions On Hume And Descartes On The Theory Of Ideas

613 words - 2 pages David Hume and Rene Descartes are philosophers with opposing views about the origination of ideas. Descartes believed there were three types of ideas which are, innate, adventitious and those from imagination. He stated since he exists and his idea of what a perfect being is, such as God, then God exists. Hume, on the other had, believed ideas came only from one thing, impressions. Both theories have their strengths and weaknesses but I like

Empiricism Versus Rationalism: Descartes And Hume

645 words - 3 pages Rationalism and empiricism have always been on opposite sides of the philosophic spectrum, Rene Descartes and David Hume are the best representative of each school of thought. Descartes’ rationalism posits that deduction, reason and thus innate ideas are the only way to get to true knowledge. Empiricism on the other hand, posits that by induction, and sense perception, we may find that there are in fact no innate ideas, but that truths must be

Descartes And Hume: A Look At Skepticism And Finding Stability

905 words - 4 pages René Descartes was a skeptic, and thus he believed that in order for something to be considered a true piece of knowledge, that “knowledge must have a certain stability,” (Cottingham 21). In his work, Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes concludes that in order to achieve this stability, he must start at the foundations for all of his opinions and find the basis of doubt in each of them. David Hume, however, holds a different position on