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Hunter Gatherers: Major Transition In History Essay

1471 words - 6 pages

The lifeway of the Hunter-Gatherers underwent two major transitions in which the Systematic Agriculturalists and Pastoral Nomads were created. The Hunter-Gatherers changed in order to better survive and to have better lives. The transition into Agriculture was when people began to grow their own crops. The transition into Pastoralism was when people began to domesticate animals. These two new lifeways had both their advantages and disadvantages. Both lifeways involved one major transition in which human behavior and the environment in which people could live changed.
The Hunter-Gatherers were a simple people who relied on getting food from hunting animals and gathering fruit, nuts, berries, and grains. They mainly lived in the Paleolithic era, which is also known as the Stone Age. Both men and women provided food for the groups, and were considered as equals. The people were very family-oriented and had a close relationship with the world around them that provided for them and enabled them to survive. Also, Hunter-Gatherers were illiterate, which means they did not have a written language. They passed memories down from generation to generation orally, which is considered oral history. Unfortunately, this way of recording history was a selective interpretation of the past that could change over time. However, there was a major issue with this lifeway; the food resources were unreliable. This created many issues for the Hunter-Gatherers, such as, low populations and limited living conditions. The Hunter-Gatherers had to change in order to be more successful at surviving.
In the early Neolithic Era, which is also known as the New Stone Age, the lifeway of the Hunter-Gatherers began to change. In the area of the Middle East, and in multiple fertile areas all around the world, people began to start settling down. This means that they built small villages and stayed there year-round. In order to do this, they had to go through a major transition. This major change was that the people began to grow crops selectively. This means that the people gathered the seeds and grew them around their village, which created a more secure food source. Also, each harvesting season, they would select the biggest, best-tasting seeds and grow only those in the next season. This major change was the Agricultural Revolution, which is the shift into the Systematic Agriculturalists. This shift leads to more changes in their way of life. After the transition, people began to write down their history, which lead to more intellectual breakthroughs later on, such as philosophy. The major transition into the Agriculturalists was when people began to harvest food.
The beginning of Systematic Agriculture and the harvesting of crops was a very important change that led to many advantages. One major advantage of Agriculture is there was a large surplus of food. With a surplus of food, meant larger populations and social structure. Many forms of...

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