Hunter/Gathering And Horicultural Essay

1262 words - 5 pages

Today in this world of fast food restaurants, car side-to-go, and shopping malls it is really hard to think of someone living off the land. However, it is not just one person but an entire tribe. Clans and families working together in order to survive in their remote parts of the world. Examining the Hopi tribe of the southwest United States and the Baka tribe north of the African Congo it is obvious to see that they are completely different from each other. This shows that environment has a huge effect on cultures. The Hopi, which means good, peaceful, or wise, live in northeast Arizona at the southern end of the Black Mesa. A mesa is a small isolated flat-topped hill. Which is a perfect view over their land to see visitors or their crops. Hopis live in pueblos on the mesas that are made of stone and mud and stand several stories high. The Kivas are an underground chamber in the pueblo home that they used to talk and have religious ceremonies in. The Kivas have been used for hundreds of years, ancestor after ancestor. The flat roof consists of beams resting on the tops of the walls, pole battens, rod and grass thatching, a layer of gumbo plaster, and a covering of dry earth. Most of the houses are more than single story and some are four stories. The upper apartments are reached by outside ladders.The very first southwest peoples hunted mammoths until they became extinct. Then people began to hunt buffalo, also known as bison, as well as collect wild plants for food. Then they mastered the art of growing maize, or corn, in such an arid climate. Suddenly the Hopi adapted to the farming and care of mother corn. Corn is the central food of daily life, and piki - paper-thin bread made from corn and ash--is the dominant food at ceremonies. Corn relies on the farmer to survive, and the Hopi relies on the corn - all life designed to be interrelated. The Hopi Indians grow food similar to the Navajo Indians. They raised corn or maize as the basic food. The Hopi Indians based religious ceremonies on the corn they grew. They also grow beans, squash, melons, pumpkins, and fruit. Making them the farmers of the southwest. The women and men each have specific jobs or duties they perform. The women own the land and the house. Making the Hopi a matriarchal society. They also cook, grind corn, and weave the baskets that hold the corn. The men plant and harvest, weave cloth, and perform the ceremonies. A Hopi bride grinds corn for three days at her future husband's house to show she has wife skills. The beauty of this is the Hopi marry for love. The groom and his male relatives weave her wedding clothes to show that he has husband skills. After they are finished, the bride would walk home in one wedding outfit, and carry the mother corn. Women are also buried in their wedding outfit so when they enter the spirit world they would be dressed appropriately. The Hopi men wear several bead necklaces on their wedding day. The women and men each have...

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