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Hypercholesterolemia Has Signicantly Increaed In Maylasia

810 words - 4 pages

Undeniably, high levels cholesterol in blood or hypercholesterolemia has become a significant part and parcel concern in billions of people across the globe. However, due to craving for an assortment of delicacies Malaysian food with different culinary styles, number of Malaysians with hypercholesterolemia rose by leaps and bounds over the past six years. (Elvina Fernandez, 2012) Consultant cardiologist and Malaysian Heart Foundation director Datuk Dr Khoo Kah Lin indicated that 33.33% of Malaysians suffered from hypercholesterolemia, the major cause of death in Malaysia since 30 years ago, contributed by sedentary lifestyles and dietary habits, shown in Figure 1. (Elvina Fernandez, 2012) However, human body needs cholesterol (Figure 2), a steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and it is other biologically important steroids’ precursor molecule, such as hormones. (Neil A. Campbell et al, 2008). Cholesterol levels must be maintained in a healthy level as shown in Table 1. It is important that medical researchers must emphasize on debate of hypercholesterolemia researches. The essay will briefly survey on the pathology field of hypercholesterolemia and pharmacology of Lipitor.

Hypercholesterolemia, generally above 200 mg/dL is defined as excessively high plasma cholesterol levels that normally associated with coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular by virtue of endothelial cell dysfunction. Endothelial cells play a prominent role in maintaining vascular tone via the aiding of Nitric Oxide (NO) that synthesized from the amino acid L-arginine through the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). (Anders Eriksson-Palojärvi, 2013) However, Hypercholesterolemia in the setting of high levels of oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol renders the endogenous inhibitor of NOS, Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA) to increase, which in turn restrict vasodilation in vessels. Moreover, excessive ADMA can restrict the normal function of NO by increasing platelet aggregation and thromboxane release. Sometimes thrombosis can completely block the blood flow and causes heart attack or stroke. Hence, ADMA elevations cause cardiovascular disease (CVD). Basically, hydrophobic cholesterol is transported by two major lipoproteins namely High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and LDL. LDL is considered as a “bad cholesterol”, contains higher concentration of cholesterol than HDL and can lead to several heart associated diseases, especially arteriosclerosis where a condition that arteries getting narrowed and harden. (Marie & Media, 2012) Figure 3 illustrates a summary explanation. The deposition of cholesterol or small fatty lumps inside the lining of arteries form large and thick plaques and can narrower arteries. Consequently, flow of oxygenated blood is...

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