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Hypnotherapy And Smoking Cessation Essay

1597 words - 6 pages

The theme of this study is to investigate the efficiency of hypnotherapy, with regard to smoking cessation. An evaluation will be made regarding the efficacy of single session therapy, against multiple session therapy. In view of this evaluation, a non-clinical case study will be discussed, in order to assess the benefits of tailoring therapy around the needs of the individual. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation has produced impressive results, according to numerous studies. Having said this, results are varied. Some studies claim impressive success i.e. 90.6% (Barber, 2001), 90% (Klager, 2004), and 80% (Crasilneck, 1990), whilst others report lower success i.e. 48% (Elkins and Rajab, 2004) and 25% (Ahijevych, Yerardi and Nedilsky, 2000). This variation may be due the number of methods and approaches adopted (Crasilneck, 1990; Barber, 2001; Spiegel, Frischholz, Fleiss and Spiegel, 1993). Or, perhaps it may be due to the personality of the therapist i.e. the powerful ‘chemistry’ of alliance (Kroger, 1977; Lynn and Rue, 1991; Hubble, Duncun and Miller, 1999). A number of variables exist with regard to the study of smoking cessation. However, the onus of this study is to concentrate on the constant variable, a variable common to all studies, that is, the patient.
Firstly, however, it is important to explore whether single or multiple session therapy may prove most effective. There is strong evidence to support the use of multiple session hypnosis above single session hypnosis with regard to smoking cessation (Hammond, 1990). In fact, a variety of counselling methods have proved more successful in multi session, regardless of technique (Zhu, Stretch, Balabanis, Rosbrook, Sadler and Pierce, 1996). Furthermore, meta analysis further suggests that face-to-face intervention is significantly more successful than alternatives (Windsor1988; Weisfield 1991; Stevens, 1993; Rigotti, 1997; Simon, 1997; Dornelas, 2000; Glasgow, 2000; Molyneux, 2003; Hennrikus 2005; Kim 2005). The success of multiple sessions may be, partly, due to them allowing sufficient time for the development of trust and alliance (Addis and Jacobson, 1996; Elkin et al, 1999). The patient also has more time to reflect and self-evaluate, between sessions and this is intrinsic to personal agency (McKay, 1987). In view of this, a list containing the patient’s smoking routines and the reasons for stopping smoking were prepared before the first session. As well as enabling the patient to reflect and focus prior to therapy, this information was used to tailor treatment to the patient’s needs.
By way of contrast, conflicting evidence exists to suggest that there is no difference in smoking cessation regardless of frequency or length between sessions (Frank, Umlauf, Wonderlich and Ashkanazi, 1986). However, it could be argued that this may be due to the treatment’s suitability, with regard to the smokers recruited. Moreover, it could be further argued that the small sample group (48) used in...

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