Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or as refer to as ADHD is a neurobehavioral disorder among children and adolescents. The disorder symptoms may vary from one person to other, but one symptom that seen in most of children with ADHD the ability in gain attention and loss of the opportunity to save and retrieve information, which indicate these children suffers from memory deficiency. Most of researches and studies done in this disorder previously focused on visual memory, but not many studies done on iconic memory, which is the visual sensory memory register pertaining to the visual domain and a fast-decaying store of visual information. The iconic memory found on the prefrontal cortex of the brain, function to enable the brain to recall an image that is displayed later. Also iconic memory considers being the primary stage of memory and consisting of visible persistence and informational persistence. There is no clear link to what parts of the memory of children with ADHD affected, but there is a strong linkage between iconic memory and ADHDs’ inability to gain attention.
The study tested the Iconic memory in children with ADHD and compares to normal children without ADHD to determine if the children with ADHD have a working iconic memory or not. Additionally, comparing the results would help in future studies to understand whether the iconic memory is the primary reason of the children with ADHD inability to gain attention, and this could be a gateway to improve treatment for ADHD if indeed the iconic memory is a factor of inattention of children with ADHD.
The subject of the study were children ages 6-9 years old selected from 1st and 2nd grades of educational district of Yazd, southeast Iran. The study consist of two different groups, the experimental group which have 30 children refereed to Imam Hosein Clinic, who were diagnosed with ADHD by a psychiatrist during 2011-2012 were selected excluding those who were diagnosed and were in drugs, and the control group consists of 30 children who are healthy with no pervious history of psychiatric disorder excluding those who were color blindness, but not who wore glasses. The study require the parents and teachers to complete the child symptom inventory -4 that reference symptoms question related to ADHD according to the DSM-5. Then Iconic memory test adapted from a test initially introduced by Sperling and Averbach in 1961 for testing iconic memory in healthy individuals. In this test children were present with images of an object which are easily identifiable for 6-9 years old children. There were 12 images shown to 20 6-year old children, and 4 images were most identifiable by all children.
However, the Iconic memory test consists of 2 blocks each containing 20 test trails and 90 experimental trial. The duration of the matrix presentation varied for the 20 test trails. The experimental trails duration were 50,100, and 300 ms for the first trail 30, and the second...